skip to main content

Egg-shell Treated Oil Palm Fronds (EG-OPF) as Low-Cost Adsorbent for Methylene Blue Removal

1Faculty of Chemical and Natural Resources Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Pahang, 26300 Gambang, Kuantan, Pahang, Malaysia

2Centre of Excellence for Advanced Research in Fluid Flow, Universiti Malaysia Pahang, 26300 Gambang, Kuantan, Pahang, Malaysia

Received: 1 Oct 2018; Revised: 28 Oct 2018; Accepted: 14 Nov 2018; Published: 15 Apr 2019; Available online: 25 Jan 2019.
Open Access Copyright (c) 2019 by Authors, Published by BCREC Group under

Citation Format:
Cover Image

A new adsorbent (egg-shell treated oil palm fronds (EG-OPF)) prepared from wastes was evaluated for methylene blue (MB) removal. Optimization among three significant variables (initial concentration (X1), initial pH (X2), and adsorbent dosage (X3)) were executed using response surface methodology (RSM). The most excellent performance was marked at X1 = 291.7 mg/L, X2 = pH 5, and X3 = 1.82 g/L, with MB removal of 80.26 %. The kinetic study was fitted perfectly with the pseudo-second-order model (R2 > 0.990), indicating the chemisorption process. The isotherm study was found to follow the Langmuir isotherm model (R2 = 0.999), with maximal adsorption magnitude of 714.3 mg/g, implying the monolayer adsorption on a homogenous adsorbent surface. The reusability study affirmed the feasibility of EG-OPF in MB removal, credited to its excellent performance during reusability studies. The present study successfully discovered a new low-cost adsorbent (EG-OPF) for MB removal. 

Fulltext View|Download
Keywords: Adsorption; Low-Cost Adsorbent; Optimization; Methylene Blue
Funding: Universiti Malaysia Pahang (UMP) through Research University Grant (RDU170331)

Article Metrics:

Article Info
Section: The 4th International Conference of Chemical Engineering & Industrial Biotechnology (ICCEIB 2018)
Language : EN
  1. Konicki, W., Aleksandrzak, M., Moszyński, D., Mijowska, E. (2017). Adsorption of Anionic Azo-Dyes from Aqueous Solutions onto Graphene Oxide: Equilibrium, Kinetic and Thermodynamic Studies. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, 496188-496200
  2. Tan, K.B., Vakili, M., Horri, B.A., Poh, P.E., Abdullah, A.Z., Salamatinia, B. (2015). Adsorption of Dyes by Nanomaterials: Recent Developments and Adsorption Mechanisms. Separation and Purification Technology, 150229-150242
  3. Sharma, Y.C., Uma. (2010). Optimization of Parameters for Adsorption of Methylene Blue on a Low-Cost Activated Carbon. Journal of Chemical & Engineering Data, 55(1): 435-439
  4. Pathania, D., Sharma, S., Singh, P. (2017). Removal of Methylene Blue by Adsorption onto Activated Carbon Developed from Ficus Carica Bast. Arabian Journal of Chemistry, 10S1445-S1451
  5. Alventosa-deLara, E., Barredo-Damas, S., Alcaina-Miranda, M.I., Iborra-Clar, M.I. (2012). Ultrafiltration Technology with a Ceramic Membrane for Reactive Dye Removal: Optimization of Membrane Performance. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 209: 210492-210500
  6. Körbahti, B.K., Artut, K., Geçgel, C., Özer, A. (2011). Electrochemical Decolorization of Textile Dyes and Removal of Metal Ions from Textile Dye and Metal Ion Binary Mixtures. Chemical Engineering Journal, 173(3): 677-688
  7. Hassani, A., Alidokht, L., Khataee, A.R., Karaca, S. (2014). Optimization of Comparative Removal of Two Structurally Different Basic Dyes Using Coal as a Low-Cost and Available Adsorbent. Journal of the Taiwan Institute of Chemical Engineers, 45(4): 1597-1607
  8. Tehrani-Bagha, A.R., Nikkar, H., Mahmoodi, N.M., Markazi, M., Menger, F.M. (2011). The Sorption of Cationic Dyes onto Kaolin: Kinetic, Isotherm and Thermodynamic Studies. Desalination, 266(1): 274-280
  9. Setiabudi, H.D., Jusoh, R., Suhaimi, S.F.R.M., Masrur, S.F. (2016). Adsorption of Methylene Blue onto Oil Palm (Elaeis Guineensis) Leaves: Process Optimization, Isotherm, Kinetics and Thermodynamic Studies. Journal of the Taiwan Institute of Chemical Engineers, 63363-63370
  10. Sumathi, S., Chai, S.P., Mohamed, A.R. (2008). Utilization of Oil Palm as a Source of Renewable Energy in Malaysia. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 12(9): 2404-2421
  11. Saadon, N., Razali, N., Yashim, M.M., Yusof, N.A. (2006). Adsorption of Methylene Blue Using Oil Palm (Elaeis Guaneensis) Fronds as Activated Carbon. ARPN Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences, 11(9): 6192-6194
  12. Djilali, Y., Elandaloussi, E. H., Aziz, A., Menorval L. C. (2016). Alkaline Treatment of Timber Sawdust : A Straightforward Route toward Effective Low-Cost Adsorbent for the Enhanced Removal of Basic Dyes from Aqueous Solutions. Journal of Saudi Chemical Society, 20: S241-S249
  13. Lagergren, S. (1898). About the Theory of So-Called Adsorption of Soluble Substances. Journal of Chemical Engineering, 24(1): 1-39
  14. Ho Y.S., McKay, G. (1999). Pseudo-Second Order Model for Sorption Processes. Process Biochemistry, 34(5): 451-465
  15. Langmuir, I. (1918). The Adsorption of Gases on Plane Surfaces of Glass, Mica and Platinum, Journal of the American Chemical Society, 40: 1361-1403
  16. Freundlich, H. (1906). Adsorption in Solution, The Journal of Physical Chemistry, 57: 47-385
  17. Pradeep Sekhar, C., Kalidhasan, S., Rajesh, V., Rajesh, N. (2009). Bio-Polymer Adsorbent for the Removal of Malachite Green from Aqueous Solution. Chemosphere, 77(6): 842-847
  18. Teas, C., Kalligeros, S., Zanikos, F., Stournas, S., Lois, E., Anastopoulos, G. (2001). Investigation of the Effectiveness of Absorbent Materials in Oil Spills Clean Up. Desalination, 140(3): 259-264
  19. Marín, A.B.P., Ortuño, J.F., Aguilar, M.I., Meseguer, V.F., Sáez, J., Lloréns, M. (2010). Use of Chemical Modification to Determine the Binding of Cd(II), Zn(II) and Cr(III) Ions by Orange Waste. Biochemical Engineering Journal, 53(1): 2-6
  20. Banerjee, S., Chattopadhyaya, M.C. (2017). Adsorption Characteristics for the Removal of a Toxic Dye, Tartrazine from Aqueous Solutions by a Low Cost Agricultural by-Product. Arabian Journal of Chemistry, 10S1629-S1638
  21. Pirok, B.W.J., Knip, J., van Bommel, M.R., Schoenmakers, P.J. (2016). Characterization of Synthetic Dyes by Comprehensive Two-Dimensional Liquid Chromatography Combining Ion-Exchange Chromatography and Fast Ion-Pair Reversed-Phase Chromatography. Journal of Chromatography A, 1436141-1436146
  22. Chatterjee, S., Kumar, A., Basu, S., Dutta, S. (2012). Application of Response Surface Methodology for Methylene Blue Dye Removal from Aqueous Solution Using Low Cost Adsorbent. Chemical Engineering Journal, 181: 182289-182299
  23. Auta, M., Hameed, B.H. (2014). Chitosan–Clay Composite as Highly Effective and Low-Cost Adsorbent for Batch and Fixed-Bed Adsorption of Methylene Blue. Chemical Engineering Journal, 237352-237361

Last update: 2021-10-14 16:03:28

No citation recorded.

Last update: 2021-10-14 16:03:28

  1. Effective removal of Pb(II) by low-cost fibrous silica KCC-1 synthesized from silica-rich rice husk ash

    Hasan R.. Journal of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry, 75 , 2019. doi: 10.1016/j.jiec.2019.03.034