Synthesis of Chitosan/Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles Stabilized by Chitosan via Microwave Heating

*Nurul Amira Ahmad Yusof -  Faculty of Chemical & Natural Resources Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Pahang , Highway Tun Razak, 26300 Kuantan, Pahang, Malaysia
Norashikin Mat Zain -  Faculty of Chemical & Natural Resources Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Pahang , Highway Tun Razak, 26300 Kuantan, Pahang, Malaysia
Norlin Pauzi -  Faculty of Chemical & Natural Resources Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Pahang , Highway Tun Razak, 26300 Kuantan, Pahang, Malaysia
Received: 1 Oct 2018; Revised: 15 Feb 2019; Accepted: 15 Feb 2019; Published: 1 Aug 2019; Available online: 30 Apr 2019.
Open Access Copyright (c) 2019 Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis
Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
Citation Format:
Cover Image
Article Info
Section: The 4th International Conference of Chemical Engineering & Industrial Biotechnology (ICCEIB 2018)
Language: EN
Full Text:
Statistics: 188 42

Nowadays, zinc oxide (ZnO) has attracted attention in research and development because of its remarkable antibacterial properties. Chitosan/ZnO nanoparticles were successfully synthesized via microwave heating. The objectives of this work were to investigate the effect of stabilizer, power heating and time heating on size of chitosan/ZnO nanoparticles and to determine antibacterial activity against pathogenic bacteria, where chitosan was used as a stabilizing agent. Chitosan/ZnO nanoparticles were analyzed  by Fourier Transform Infra Red (FTIR), X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM), and Zetasizer instrument. The power heating and time heating were varied from 400 to 800 Watt and 4 to 8 minutes, respectively. The presence of chitosan has role on preventing the nanoparticles from agglomeration by producing a milky solution of chitosan/ZnO nanoparticles without any suspensions. The increase of power  and time heating improved the size of nanoparticles. The peak in FTIR spectrum at around 427 cm-1 was confirmed the existence of the ZnO phase. XRD patterns showed that the chitosan/ZnO nanoparticles materials were pure phase with average crystalline size is 130 nm. FESEM revealed that chitosan/ZnO nanoparticles were uniformly distributed with the mean value of size is 70 nm and spherical shaped. Further impact of power and time heating on the size of the chitosan/ZnO nanoparticles can be shown by a nanoparticles size distribution with the average of 30 to 90 nm. The results showed that chitosan/ZnO nanoparticles have displayed an antibacterial inhibition zone against Gram-positive S. aureus and Gram-negative E. coli which 16.0 and 13.3 mm, respectively. Chitosan/ZnO nanoparticles were synthesized in this work presented have potential application to prevent bacterial infections. Copyright © 2019 BCREC Group. All rights reserved


ZnO Nanoparticles; Chitosan; Microwave Heating; Stabilizer; Antibacterial

Article Metrics:

  1. Cho, S., Jeong, H., Park, D., Jung, S., Kim, H., Lee, K. (2010). The effects of vitamin C on ZnO crystal formation. CrystEngComm, 12: 968–976.
  2. Chaithanatkun, N., Chantarawong, D., Songkeaw, P., Onlaor, K., Thiwawong, T., Tunhoo, B. (2015). Effect of ascorbic acid on structural properties of ZnO nanoparticles prepared by precipitation process. 2015 IEEE 10th International Conference on Nano/Micro Engineered and Molecular Systems, NEMS 145–148.
  3. Zhang, Y., Wu, J., Aagesen, M., Liu, H. (2015). III – V nanowires and nanowire optoelectronic devices. J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys., 48: 463001.
  4. Chandore, V., Carpenter, G., Sen, R., Gupta, N. (2013). International Journal of Environmental Science : Development and Monitoring Synthesis of nano crystalline ZnO by Microwave Assisted Combustion method : An eco friendly and solvent free route. IJESDM, 4: 45-47.
  5. Zain, N.M., Stapley, A.G.F., Shama, G. (2014). Green synthesis of silver and copper nanoparticles using ascorbic acid and chitosan for antimicrobial applications. Carbohydrate Polymers, 112: 195-202.
  6. Hasanpoor, M., Aliofkhazraei, M., Delavari, H. (2015). Microwave-assisted Synthesis of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles. Procedia Materials Science, 11: 320-325.
  7. Zhu, Y.J., Chen, F. (2014). Microwave-assisted preparation of inorganic nanostructures in liquid phase. Chemical Reviews, 114: 6462-6555.
  8. Thirumavalavan, M., Huang, K.-L., Lee, J.-F. (2013). Preparation and Morphology Studies of Nano Zinc Oxide Obtained Using Native and Modified Chitosans. Materials, 6: 4198-4212.
  9. Rajendran, K., Sivalingam, T. (2013). Industrial method of cotton fabric finishing with chitosan – ZnO composite for anti-bacterial and thermal stability. Industrial Crops & Products, 47: 160-167.
  10. Barreto, M.S.R., Andrade, C.T., Azero, E.G., Paschoalin, V.M.F., Aguila, E.M. Del (2017). Production of Chitosan / Zinc Oxide Complex by Ultrasonic Treatment with Antibacterial Activity. J. Bacteriol. Parasitol., 8 (330): 1-7.
  11. Farouk, A., Moussa, S., Ulbricht, M., Textor, T. (2012). ZnO Nanoparticles-Chitosan Composite as Antibacterial Finish for Textiles. International Journal of Carbohydrate Chemistry, 2012: 1-8.
  12. Sathiya, S.M., Okram, G.S., Dhivya, S.M., Manivannan, G., Rajan, M.A.J. (2016). ScienceDirect Interaction of Chitosan / Zinc Oxide Nanocomposites and their Antibacterial Activities with Escherichia coli. Materials Today: Proceedings, 3: 3855–3860.
  13. Abdelhady, M.M. (2012). Preparation and Characterization of Chitosan / Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles for Imparting Antimicrobial and UV Protection to Cotton Fabric. International Journal of Carbohydrate Chemistry, 2012: 1–6.
  14. Al-Naamani, L., Dobretsov, S., Dutta, J. (2016). Chitosan-zinc oxide nanoparticle composite coating for active food packaging applications. Innovative Food Science & Emerging Technologies, 38: 231–237.
  15. Petkova, P., Francesko, A., Fernandes, M.M., Mendoza, E., Perelshtein, I., Gedanken, A., et al. (2014). Sonochemical Coating of Textiles with Hybrid ZnO/Chitosan Antimicrobial Nanoparticles. ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces, 6: 1164–1172.
  16. Singh, G., Surinder, D. (2014). Facile fabrication and characterization of chitosan-based zinc oxide nanoparticles and evaluation of their antimicrobial and antibiofilm activity. International Nano Letters, 4: 1-11.
  17. Shahraki, R.R., Ebrahim, S.A.S., Masoudpanah, S.M. (2015). Synthesis and Characterization of Superparamagnetic Zinc Ferrite – Chitosan Composite Nanoparticles. J. Supercond. Nov. Magn., 28: 2143–2147.
  18. Rinaudo, M. (2006). Chitin and chitosan : Properties and applications. Progress in Polymer Science, 31: 603–632.
  19. Niranjan, R., Koushik, C., Saravanan, S., Moorthi, A., Vairamani, M., Selvamurugan, N. (2013). International Journal of Biological Macromolecules A novel injectable temperature-sensitive zinc doped chitosan /-glycerophosphate hydrogel for bone tissue engineering. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, 54: 24-29.
  20. Perelshtein, I., Ruderman, E., Perkas, N., Tzanov, T., Beddow, J., Joyce, E., et al. (2013). Chitosan and chitosan-ZnO-based complex nanoparticles: formation, characterization, and antibacterial activity Antibacterial Activity. Journal of Material Chemistry B, 1: 1968-1976
  21. Guo, L., Yang, S., Bay, C.W., Kong, H., Yang, C., Yu, P., et al. (2000). Synthesis and Characterization of Poly(vinylpyrrolidone) -Modified Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles. Chemistry Material. 12: 2268-2274.
  22. Mahmudin, L., Suharyadi, E., Bambang, A., Utomo, S. (2016). Influence of Stabilizing Agent and Synthesis Temperature on the Optical Properties of Silver Nanoparticles as Active Materials in Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) Biosensor Applications. Journal of Modern Physics. 6: 1071-1076
  23. Al-Gaashani, R., Radiman, S., Tabet, N., Daud, A.R. (2011). Effect of microwave power on the morphology and optical property of zinc oxide nano-structures prepared via a microwave-assisted aqueous solution method. Materials Chemistry and Physics, 125: 846–852.
  24. Regiel-futyra, A., Sebastian, V., Irusta, S., Arruebo, M., Kyzio, A. (2015). Development of Noncytotoxic Chitosan-Gold Nanocomposites as Efficient Antibacterial Materials. ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces. 7(2):1087-1099
  25. Sultan, N.M., Johan, M.R. (2014). Synthesis and Ultraviolet Visible Spectroscopy Studies of Chitosan Capped Gold Nanoparticles and Their Reactions with Analytes. The Scientific World Journal. 2014: 1-7
  26. Umer, A., Naveed, S., Ramzan, N. (2014). A green method for the synthesis of Copper Nanoparticles using L-ascorbic acid. Revista Materia, 19: 197-203.
  27. Pandiselvi, K., Thambidurai, S. (2015). Materials Science in Semiconductor Processing Synthesis , characterization , and antimicrobial activity of chitosan – zinc oxide / polyaniline composites. Materials Science in Semiconductor Processing, 31: 573–581.
  28. Khan, A., Mehmood, S., Sha, M., Yasin, T. (2013). Structural and antimicrobial properties of irradiated chitosan and its complexes with zinc. Radiation Physics and Chemistry, 91: 138-142.
  29. Rama, V., Priya Dharsini, G.R., Menaga, P.C., Usha, J.R.J. (2014). Synthesis and Characterization of Chitosan-Zinc Oxide Nanocomposite and its Antimicrobial Activity. The International Journal of Science & Technoledge, 2: 137-140
  30. Wang, X., Zheng, J., Fu, R., Ma, J. (2011). Effect of Microwave Power and Irradiation Time on the Performance of Pt/C Catalysts Synthesized by Pulse-microwave Assisted Chemical Reduction. Chinese Journal of Catalysis, 32: 599–605.
  31. Wojnarowicz, J., Chudoba, T., Gierlotka, S., Lojkowski, W. (2018). Effect of microwave radiation power on the size of aggregates of ZnO NPs prepared using microwave solvothermal synthesis. Nanomaterials (Basel), 8: 1-17.
  32. Marsalek, R. (2014). Particle size and Zeta Potential of ZnO. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 9: 13–17.
  33. Steffy, K., Shanthi, G., Maroky, A.S., Selvakumar, S. (2018). Journal of Infection and Public Health Enhanced antibacterial effects of green synthesized ZnO NPs using Aristolochia indica against Multi-drug resistant bacterial pathogens from Diabetic Foot Ulcer. Journal of Infection and Public Health, 11: 463–471.
  34. Elizabeth, M., Mohan, J.C., Manzoor, K., Nair, S. V, Tamura, H., Jayakumar, R. (2010). Folate conjugated carboxymethyl chitosan – manganese doped zinc sulphide nanoparticles for targeted drug delivery and imaging of cancer cells. Carbohydrate Polymers, 80: 442–448.
  35. El-naggar, M.E., Shaheen, T.I., Fouda, M.M.G., Hebeish, A.A. (2016). Eco-friendly microwave-assisted green and rapid synthesis of well-stabilized gold and core – shell silver – gold nanoparticles. Carbohydrate Polymers, 136: 1128–1136.
  36. Jafarirad, S., Mehrabi, M., Divband, B., Kosari-nasab, M. (2016). Biofabrication of zinc oxide nanoparticles using fruit extract of Rosa canina and their toxic potential against bacteria : A mechanistic approach. Materials Science & Engineering C, 59: 296-302.
  37. Wangoo, N., Kaushal, J., Bhasin, K.K., Mehta, S.K., Suri, C.R. (2010). Zeta potential based colorimetric immunoassay for the direct detection of diabetic marker HbA1c using gold nanoprobes. Chem. Commun. 46: 5755-5757
  38. Yamamoto, O. (2001). Influence of particle size on the antibacterial activity of zinc oxide. International Journal of Inorganic Materials. 3: 643–646.
  39. Sirelkhatim, A., Mahmud, S., Seeni, A., Kaus, N.H.M., Ann, L.C., Bakhori, S.K.M., Hasan, H., Mohamad, D. (2015). Review on zinc oxide nanoparticles: Antibacterial activity and toxicity mechanism. Nano-Micro Letters, 7: 219–242.
  40. T. Jin, D. Sun, Su, J.Y., Zhang, H., Sue, H.-J. (2009). Antimicrobial Efficacy of Zinc Oxide Quantum Dots against Listeria monocytogenes , Salmonella Enteritidis, and Escherichia coli O157 : H7. Journal of Food Science, 4 (1): 46-52
  41. Premanathan, M., Karthikeyan, K., Jeyasubramanian, K., Manivannan, G. (2011). Selective toxicity of ZnO nanoparticles toward Gram-positive bacteria and cancer cells by apoptosis through lipid peroxidation. Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine, 7: 184-192.
  42. Mai-Prochnow, A., Clauson, M., Hong, J., Murphy, A.B. (2016). Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria differ in their sensitivity to cold plasma. Scientific Reports. 6: 38610.
  43. Su, C., Sun, C., Juan, S., Hu, C., Ket, W., Sheut, M. (1997). Fungal mycelia as the source of chitin and polysaccharides and their applications as skin substitutes. 18: 1169-1174.
  44. Padmavathy, N., Vijayaraghavan, R. (2008). Enhanced bioactivity of ZnO nanoparticles—an antimicrobial study. Science and Technology of Advanced Materials, 9(3): 035004