Evaluation of La-Doped CaO Derived from Cockle Shells for Photodegradation of POME

Siti Shariah Ghazali -  Faculty of Chemical and Natural Resources Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Pahang , Lebuhraya Tun Razak 26300 Gambang, Kuantan, Pahang, Malaysia
Kem Ley Kem -  Faculty of Chemical and Natural Resources Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Pahang , Lebuhraya Tun Razak 26300 Gambang, Kuantan, Pahang, Malaysia
Rohayu Jusoh -  Faculty of Chemical and Natural Resources Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Pahang , Lebuhraya Tun Razak 26300 Gambang, Kuantan, Pahang, Malaysia
Sureena Abdullah -  Faculty of Chemical and Natural Resources Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Pahang , Lebuhraya Tun Razak 26300 Gambang, Kuantan, Pahang, 2 Centre of Excellence for Advanced Research in Fluid Flow, Universiti Malaysia Pahang, Lebuhraya Tun Razak 26300 Gambang, Kuantan, Pahang, Malaysia
*Jun Haslinda Shariffuddin -  Faculty of Chemical and Natural Resources Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Pahang , Lebuhraya Tun Razak 26300 Gambang, Kuantan, Pahang, Malaysia
Received: 1 Oct 2018; Revised: 12 Jan 2019; Accepted: 17 Jan 2019; Published: 15 Apr 2019; Available online: 25 Jan 2019.
Open Access Copyright (c) 2019 Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis
Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Photocatalysis has merged to be one of the most promising technology in wastewater remediation. However, the application of photocatalysis in treating palm oil mill effluent (POME) is still limited. Many researches were conducted to explore simple and cost-effective alternatives to replace TiO2 for various industrial purposes. Therefore, the aim of this study is to synthesize and characterize lanthanum doped calcium oxide (La/CaO) as photocatalyst as well as to evaluate the performance of these photocatalysts in the degradation of POME. The photocatalyst used in this study was converted from cockle shells to transform into calcium oxide (CaO) through calcination process. The CaO produced was doped with 1 wt%, 3 wt%, and 5 wt% of lanthanum (La) using wet impregnation method to enhance its photocatalytic activity. The photocatalysts were characterised using X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy-Dispersion X-ray (EDX) and Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICPMS). Then, this photocatalyst was performed on POME under UVC in a batch system by using different La/CaO at optimum catalyst dosage of 3.0 g/L. Through this research, it was found that the POME degradation through photocatalytic reaction was increased with the incorporation of La where 3 wt% La/CaO shows the highest POME degradation compared to others. This is due to the larger BET surface area that provides more active sites resulted from the incorporation of La. The findings of this study imply that the contaminants in POME can be reduced by utilizing CaO derived from cockle shells. Copyright © 2019 BCREC Group. All rights reserved


Other format:

Calcium Oxide; Cockle Shell; Palm Oil Mill Effluent; Photodegradation
Cover Image

Article Metrics:

Article Info
Section: The 4th International Conference of Chemical Engineering & Industrial Biotechnology (ICCEIB 2018)
Language: EN
Full Text:
Statistics: 170 76
  1. Ding, G.T., Yaakob, Z., Takriff, M.S., Salihon, J., Abd Rahaman, M.S. (2016). Biomass production and nutrients removal by a newly-isolated microalgal strain Chlamydomonas sp in palm oil mill effluent (POME). International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 41: 4888-4895.
  2. Najafpour, G., Zinatizadeh, A., Mohamed, A., Isa, M.H., Nasrollahzadeh, H. (2006). High-rate anaerobic digestion of palm oil mill effluent in an upflow anaerobic sludge-fixed film bioreactor. Process Biochemistry, 41: 370-379.
  3. Poh, P., Chong, M. (2009). Development of anaerobic digestion methods for palm oil mill effluent (POME) treatment. Bioresource Technology, 100: 1-9.
  4. Chan, Y.J., Chong, M.F., Law, C.L. (2011). Optimization on thermophilic aerobic treatment of anaerobically digested palm oil mill effluent (POME). Biochemical Engineering Journal, 55: 193-198.
  5. Malakahmad, A., Chuan, S.Y. (2013). Application of response surface methodology to optimize coagulation–flocculation treatment of anaerobically digested palm oil mill effluent using alum. Desalination and Water Treatment, 51: 6729-6735.
  6. Ahmad, A.L., Ismail, S., Bhatia, S. (2003). Water recycling from palm oil mill effluent (POME) using membrane technology. Desalination, 157: 87-95.
  7. Wu, T.Y., Mohammad, A.W., Jahim, J. Md., Anuar, N. (2007). Palm oil mill effluent (POME) treatment and bioresources recovery using ultrafiltration membrane: Effect of pressure on membrane fouling. Biochemical Engineering Journal, 35: 309-317.
  8. Ahmad, A.L., Ismail, S., Bhatia, S. (2005). Membrane treatment for palm oil mill effluent: Effect of transmembrane pressure and crossflow velocity. Desalination, 179: 245-255.
  9. Mohammed, R.R., Ketabchi, M.R., McKay, G. (2014). Combined magnetic field and adsorption process for treatment of biologically treated palm oil mill effluent (POME). Chemical Engineering Journal, 243: 31-42.
  10. Ahmad, A.L., Sumathi, S., Hameed, B.H. (2005). Adsorption of residue oil from palm oil mill effluent using powder and flake chitosan: equilibrium and kinetic studies. Water Research, 39: 2483-94.
  11. Ng, K.H., Cheng, C.K. (2016). Photo-polishing of POME into CH4-lean biogas over the UV-responsive ZnO photocatalyst. Chemical Engineering Journal, 300: 127-138.
  12. Ng, K.H., Lee, C.H., Khan, M.R., Cheng, C.K. (2016). Photocatalytic degradation of recalcitrant POME waste by using silver doped titania: Photokinetics and scavenging studies. Chemical Engineering Journal, 286: 282-290.
  13. Tan, Y.H., Goh, P.S., Lai, G.S., Lau, W.J., Ismail, A.F. (2014). Treatment of Aerobic Treated Palm Oil Mill Effluent (AT-POME) by using TiO2 Photocatalytic Process. Jurnal Teknologi, 70: 61-63
  14. Bello, M.M., Raman, A.A.A. (2017). Trend and current practices of palm oil mill effluent polishing: Application of advanced oxidation processes and their future perspectives. Journal Environment Management, 198: 170-182.
  15. Ng, K.H., Cheng, C.K. (2015). A novel photomineralization of POME over UV-responsive TiO2 photocatalyst: Kinetics of POME degradation and gaseous product formations. RSC Advances, 5: 53100-53110.
  16. Han, F., Kambala, V.S.R., Srinivasan, M., Rajarathnam, D., Naidu, R. (2009). Tailored titanium dioxide photocatalysts for the degradation of organic dyes in wastewater treatment: A review. Applied Catalysis A: General, 359: 25-40.
  17. Agustina, T.E., Ang, H., Vareek, V. (2005). A review of synergistic effect of photocatalysis and ozonation on wastewater treatment. Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology C: Photochemistry Reviews, 6: 264-273.
  18. Chong, M.N., Jin, B., Chow, C.W., Saint, C. (2010). Recent developments in photocatalytic water treatment technology: a review. Water Research, 44: 2997-3027.
  19. Khodami, Z., Nezamzadeh-Ejhieh, A. (2015). Investigation of photocatalytic effect of ZnO–SnO2/nano clinoptilolite system in the photodegradation of aqueous mixture of 4-methylbenzoic acid/2-chloro-5-nitrobenzoic acid. Journal of Molecular Catalysis A: Chemical, 409: 59-68.
  20. Shakir, M., Faraz, M., Sherwani, M.A., Al-Resayes, S.I. (2016). Photocatalytic degradation of the Paracetamol drug using Lanthanum doped ZnO nanoparticles and their in-vitro cytotoxicity assay. Journal of Luminescence, 176: 159-167.
  21. Korake, P.V., Dhabbe, R.S., Kadam, A.N., Gaikwad, Y.B., Garadkar, K.M. (2014). Highly active lanthanum doped ZnO nanorods for photodegradation of metasystox. Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B: Biology, 130: 11-19.
  22. Yan, H., Yang, J., Ma, G., Wu, G., Zong, X., Lei, Z., Shi, J., Li, C. (2009). Visible-light-driven hydrogen production with extremely high quantum efficiency on Pt–PdS/CdS photocatalyst. Journal of Catalysis, 266: 165-168.
  23. Kadam, A.N., Dhabbe, R.S., Kokate, M.R., Garadkar, K.M. (2014). Room temperature synthesis of CdS nanoflakes for photocatalytic properties. Journal of Materials Science: Material in Electronics, 25: 1887-1892.
  24. Mena, E., Rey, A., Rodríguez, E.M., Beltrán, F.J. (2017). Nanostructured CeO 2 as catalysts for different AOPs based in the application of ozone and simulated solar radiation. Catalysis Today, 280: 74-79.
  25. Kumar, P.M., Josephine, S.G.A., Sivasamy, A. (2017). Oxidation of organic dye using nanocrystalline rare earth metal ion doped CeO 2 under UV and Visible light irradiations. Journal of Molecular Liquids, 242: 789-797.
  26. Sánchez-Cantú, M., Peralta, L.R.M. A., Galindo-Rodríguez, B., Puente-López, E., Rubio-Rosas, E., Gómez, C.M., Tzompantzi, F. (2017). Calcium-containing materials as alternative catalysts in advanced oxidation process. Fuel, 198: 76-81.
  27. Shaveisi, Y., Sharifnia, S. (2018). Deriving Ag3PO4 CaO composite as a stable and solar light photocatalyst for efficient ammonia degradation from wastewater. Journal of Energy Chemistry, 27: 290-299.
  28. Bhaskar, N.S., Kadam, A.D., Biwal, J.J., Diwate, P.M., Dalbhanjan, R.R., Mahale, D.D., Hinge, S.P., Banerjee, B.S., Mohod, A.V., Gogate, P.R. (2015). Removal of Rhodamine 6G from wastewater using solar irradiations in the presence of different additives. Desalination and Water Treatment, 57:18275-18285.
  29. Kornprobst, T., Plank, J. (2012). Photodegradation of Rhodamine B in Presence of CaO and NiO-CaO Catalysts. International Journal of Photoenergy, 2012: 1-6.
  30. Ameta, R., Kumar, D., Jhalora, P. (2014). Photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue using calcium oxide. Acta Chimica Pharmaceutica Indica, 4: 20-28.
  31. Song, L., Zhang, S., Chen, B., Sun, D. (2009). Highly active NiO–CaO photocatalyst for degrading organic contaminants under visible-light irradiation. Catalysis Communications, 10: 421-423.
  32. Anantharaman, A., Ramalakshmi, S., George, M. (2016). Green synthesis of calcium oxide nanoparticles and its applications. International Journal of Engineering Research and Application, 6: 27-31.
  33. Madhusudhana, N., Yogendra, K., Mahadevan, K.M. (2012). A comparative study on Photocatalytic degradation of Violet GL2B azo dye using CaO and TiO2 nanoparticles. International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications, 2: 1300-1307.
  34. Veeranna, K., Lakshamaiah, M.T., Narayan, R.T. (2014). Photocatalytic degradation of indigo carmine dye using calcium oxide. International Journal of Photochemistry, 2014: 1-6.
  35. Shinde, S.S., Bhosale, C.H., Rajpure, K.Y. (2013). Kinetic Analysis of Heterogeneous Photocatalysis: Role of Hydroxyl Radicals. Catalysis Reviews, 55: 79-133.
  36. Nešić, J., Manojlović, D.D., Anđelković, I., Dojčinović, B.P., Vulić, P.J., Krstić, J., Roglić, G.M. (2013). Preparation, characterization and photocatalytic activity of lanthanum and vanadium co-doped mesoporous TiO2 for azo-dye degradation. Journal of Molecular Catalysis A: Chemical, 378: 67-75.
  37. Arif, H.S., Murtaza, G., Hanif, H., Ali, H.S., Yaseen, M., Khalid, N.R. (2017). Effect of La on structural and photocatalytic activity of SnO 2 nanoparticles under UV irradiation. Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering, 5: 3844-3851.
  38. Jones, M., Wang, L., Abeynaike, A., Patterson, D.A. (2011). Utilisation of waste material for environmental applications: calcination of mussel shells for waste water treatment. Advances in Applied Ceramics, 110: 280-286.
  39. Shariffuddin, J.H., Jones, M.L., Patterson, D.A. (2013). Greener photocatalysts: Hydroxyapatite derived from waste mussel shells for the photocatalytic degradation of a model azo dye wastewater. Chemical Engeering Research and Design, 91: 1693-1704.
  40. Taufiq-Yap, Y., Lee, H., Hussein, M., Yunus, R. (2011). Calcium-based mixed oxide catalysts for methanolysis of Jatropha curcas oil to biodiesel. Biomass and Bioenergy, 35: 827-834.
  41. Safaei-Ghomia, J., Ghasemzadeha, M.A., Mehrabi, M. (2013). Calcium oxide nanoparticles catalyzed one-step multicomponent synthesis of highly substituted pyridines in aqueous ethanol media. Scientia Iranica, 20: 549–554.
  42. Kaur, M., Ali, A. (2011). Lithium ion impregnated calcium oxide as nano catalyst for the biodiesel production from karanja and jatropha oils. Renewable Energy, 36: 2866-2871.
  43. Kaur, M., Ali, A. (2014). Ethanolysis of waste cottonseed oil over lithium impregnated calcium oxide: Kinetics and reusability studies. Renewable Energy, 63: 272-279.
  44. Naidu, B.S., Vishwanadh, B., Sudarsan, V., Vatsa, R.K. (2012). BiPO4: a better host for doping lanthanide ions. Dalton Transactions, 41: 3194-203.
  45. Teo, S.H., Goto, M., Taufiq-Yap, Y.H. (2015). Biodiesel production from Jatropha curcas L. oil with Ca and La mixed oxide catalyst in near
  46. supercritical methanol conditions. The Journal of Supercritical Fluids, 104: 243-250.
  47. Yan, S., Kim, M., Salley, S.O., Ng, K.S. (2009) Oil transesterification over calcium oxides modified with lanthanum. Applied Catalysis A: General, 360: 163-170.
  48. Reyero, I., Arzamendi, G., Gandía, L.M. (2014). Heterogenization of the biodiesel synthesis catalysis: CaO and novel calcium compounds as transesterification catalysts. Chemical Engineering Research and Design, 92: 1519-1530.
  49. Gholami, Z., Abdullah, A.Z., Lee, K.T. (2014). Heterogeneously catalyzed etherification of glycerol to diglycerol over calcium–lanthanum oxide supported on MCM-41: A heterogeneous basic catalyst. Applied Catalysis A: General, 479: 76-86.
  50. Syamsuddin, Y., Murat, M.N., Hameed, B.H. (2015). Transesterification of Jatropha oil with dimethyl carbonate to produce fatty acid methyl ester over reusable Ca–La–Al mixed-oxide catalyst. Energy Conversion and Management, 106: 1356-1361.
  51. Mahesh, S.E., Ramanathan, A., Begum, K.M.S., Narayanan, A. (2015). Biodiesel production from waste cooking oil using KBr impregnated CaO as catalyst. Energy Conversion and Management, 91: 442-450.
  52. Gholami, Z., Abdullah, A.Z., Lee, K.-T. (2013). Glycerol etherification to polyglycerols using Ca1+xAl1−xLaxO3 composite catalysts in a solventless medium. Journal of the Taiwan Institute of Chemical Engineers, 44: 117-122.
  53. Wang, C.C., Lee, C.K., Lyu, M.D., Juang, L.C. (2008). Photocatalytic degradation of C.I. Basic Violet 10 using TiO2 catalysts supported by Y zeolite: An investigation of the effects of operational parameters. Dyes and Pigments, 76: 817-824.
  54. Dhahri, R., Leonardi, S.G., Hjiri, M., Mir, L.E., Bonavita, A., Donato, N., Iannazzo, D., Neri, G. (2017). Enhanced performance of novel calcium/aluminum co-doped zinc oxide for CO2 sensors. Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical, 239: 36-44.
  55. Sharma, P.K., Dutta, R.K., Pandey, A.C. (2009). Doping dependent room-temperature ferromagnetism and structural properties of dilute magnetic semiconductor ZnO: Cu2+ nanorods. Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials, 321: 4001-4005.
  56. Yang, X., Cao, C., Erickson, L., Hohn, K., Maghirang, R., Klabunde, K. (2009). Photo-catalytic degradation of Rhodamine B on C-, S-, N-, and Fe-doped TiO2 under visible-light irradiation. Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, 91: 657-662.
  57. Buasri, A., Chaiyut, N., Loryuenyong, V., Worawanitchaphong, P., Trongyong, S. (2013). Calcium oxide derived from waste shells of mussel, cockle, and scallop as the heterogeneous catalyst for biodiesel production. The Scientific World Journal, 2013: 1-7.
  58. Hu, S., Wang, Y., Han, H. (2011). Utilization of waste freshwater mussel shell as an economic catalyst for biodiesel production. Biomass Bioenergy, 35: 3627-3635.
  59. Dunlap, M., Adaskaveg, J.E., (1997). Introduction to the Scanning Electron Microscope, Theory, Practice, and Procedures. Facility for Advanced Instrumention, U.C. Davis
  60. Nešić, J., Manojlović, D.D., Anđelković, I., Dojčinović, B.P., Vulić, P.J., Krstić, J., and Roglić, G.M. (2013). Preparation, characterization and photocatalytic activity of lanthanum and vanadium co-doped mesoporous TiO2 for azo-dye degradation. Journal of Molecular Catalysis A: Chemical, 378: 67-75.
  61. Thi, V.H.-T., Lee, B.-K. (2017). Effective photocatalytic degradation of paracetamol using La-doped ZnO photocatalyst under visible light irradiation. Material Research Bulletin, 96: 171-182.
  62. Lan, X., Wang, L., Zhang, B., Tian, B., Zhang, J. (2014). Preparation of lanthanum and boron co-doped TiO2 by modified sol–gel method and study their photocatalytic activity. Catalyst Today, 224: 163-170.
  63. Al-Salim, N.I., Bagshaw, S.A., Bittar, A., Kemmitt, T. A, McQuillan, A.J, Mills, A.M., Ryan, M.J. (2000). Characterisation and activity of sol–gel-prepared TiO2 photocatalysts modified with Ca, Sr or Ba ion additives. Journal of Material Chemistry, 10: 2358-2363.
  64. Bahruji, H., Bowker, M., Davies, P.R., Morgan, D.J., Morton, C.A., Egerton, T.A., Kennedy, J., Jones, W. (2014). Rutile TiO2–Pd Photocatalysts for Hydrogen Gas Production from Methanol Reforming. Topics in Catalysis, 58: 70-76.
  65. Rupani, P.F., Singh, R.P., Ibrahim, M.H., Esa, N. (2010). Review of current palm oil mill effluent (POME) treatment methods: vermicomposting as a sustainable practice. World Applied Sciences Journal, 11: 70-81.
  66. Adeleke, A.O., Latiff, A.A.A., Al-Gheethi, A.A., Daud, Z. (2017). Optimization of operating parameters of novel composite adsorbent for organic pollutants removal from POME using response surface methodology. Chemosphere, 174: 232-242.
  67. Saleh, T.A., Gupta, V.K., Al-Saadi, A.A. (2013). Adsorption of lead ions from aqueous solution using porous carbon derived from rubber tires: experimental and computational study. Journal of Colloid Interface Science, 396: 264-269.