Design of a Synthetic Zinc Oxide Catalyst over Nano-Alumina for Sulfur Removal by Air in a Batch Reactor

Amer T. Nawaf -  Chemical Engineering, College of Petroleum & Minerals Engineering, Tikrit University, Iraq
*Aysar Talib Jarullah -  Chemical Engineering Department, College of Engineering, Tikrit University, Iraq
Layth T. Abdulateef -  Chemical Engineering, Middle Technical University, Iraq
Received: 6 Apr 2018; Revised: 26 Sep 2018; Accepted: 30 Sep 2018; Available online: 25 Jan 2019; Published: 15 Apr 2019.
Open Access Copyright (c) 2019 Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis
Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Owing to the environmental regulations with respect to sulfur content and continuing challenges of finding a suitable catalyst of such impurity, a driving force for the development of more efficient technologies a deep research on new oxidative catalysts is considered an important issue in fuel quality improvement. Thus, the present study shows a novel percent of nano-catalyst with 18% zinc oxide (ZnO) of active component over nano-alumina that has not been reported in the public domain for sulfur removal from kerosene fuel by air (oxidative desulfurization (ODS) method). Where, such percent of the active component on the nano-alumina helps to add one or two atoms of oxygen to sulfur content in the kerosene. The nano-catalyst (ZnO/nano-alumina-particles composite) is prepared by precipitation of zinc oxide and loaded over nano-alumina in one-step. The activity of the prepared catalyst was tested utilizing ODS process of kerosene fuel by air in a batch reactor. A set of experiments were conducted with a wide range of operating conditions, where the reaction temperature was ranged from 150 to 190ºC, the reaction time from 30 to 50 min and the catalyst weight from 0.4 to 1 g. The experimental results showed that the chemical nature of zinc oxides showed higher conversion (70.52%) at reaction temperature of 190 ºC, reaction time of 50 min, and 1 g catalyst weight used in the batch reactor. A kinetic model related to the sulfur removal from kerosene via ODS process in the batch reactor was also investigated in this study for the purpose of estimating the best kinetic parameters of the relevant reactions. The results showed that the prepared catalyst (ZnO over nano-alumina) can be applied confidently to reactor design, operation and control in addition to improve the fuel quality. Following the kinetic model of ODS process, a very well agreement between the experimental and predicted results is obtained. Copyright © 2019 BCREC Group. All rights reserved

 

Other format:

Keywords
Nano-Catalyst; Oxidative Desulfurization; Zinc Oxide; Kerosene; Batch Reactor
Cover Image

Article Metrics:

  1. Babich, V.I., Moulijn, A.J. (2003). Novel Processes for Deep Desulfurization of Oil Refinery Streams. Fuel, 82: 607-631.
  2. Rang, H., Kann, J., Oja, V. (2006). Advances in desulfurization research of liquid fuel. Oil Shale, 23: 164-176.
  3. Zhang, X.H., Gao, J.J., Meng, H., Lu, Z.Y., Li, X.C. (2012). Catalytic Oxidative Desulfurization of Fuel by H2O2 In Situ Produced via Oxidation of 2-Propanol. Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 51: 4868–4874.
  4. Sundararaman, R., Ma, X., Song, C. (2010). Oxidative desulfurization of jet and diesel fuels using hydroperoxide generated in situ by catalytic air oxidation. Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 49: 5561-5568.
  5. Zannikos, F., Vignier, V. (1995). Desulphurization of petroleum fractions by oxidation and solvent extraction. Fuel Proc. Tech. 42: 35-45.
  6. Rappas, S.A., Nero, P.V., DeCanio, J. S. (2002). Process for removing low amounts of organic sulphur from hydrocarbon fuels, US Patent 6, 402, 940 B1, 1-7.
  7. Ma, X., Zhou, A., Song, C. (2007). A novel method for oxidative desulfurization of liquid hydrocarbon fuels based on catalytic oxidation using molecular oxygen coupled with selective adsorption. Catal. Today. 123: 276-284.
  8. Al-Malki, A. (2004). Desulfurization of Gasoline and Diesel Fuels Using Non-Hydrogen Consuming Techniques. M.Sc. Thesis: King Fahad University of Petroleum and Minerals: Saudi Arabia.
  9. Dishun, Z., Fengxia, S., Erpeng, Z., Yan, L. (2003). A Review of Desulfurization of Light Oil Based on Selective Oxidation. Chemical Journal on Internet, 6: 17-23.
  10. Breysse, M., Diega-Mariadassou, G., Pessayre, S., Geantet, G., Vrinet, M., Lemaire, M. (2003). Deep desulfurization: reactions, catalysts and technological challenges. Catal. Today, 84: 129-138.
  11. Mohammadbeigi, K., Tajerian, M. (2004). Demercaptanization of distillate (DMD). Petroleum & Coal, 46: 17-22.
  12. Chica, A., Corma, A., Domine, E.M. (2006). Catalytic oxidative desulfurization (ODS) of diesel fuel on a continuous fixed-bed reactor. J. Catal. 242: 299-308.
  13. Ma, X., Zhou, A., Song, C. (2007). A novel method for oxidative desulfurization of liquid hydrocarbon fuels based on catalytic oxidation using molecular oxygen coupled with selective adsorption. Catal. Today, 123: 276-284.
  14. Sampanthar, T.J., Rong, X., Dautzenberg, M.F. (2013). Desulfurization of liquid fuels using air-assisted performic acid oxidation and emulsion catalyst. Chinese Journal of Catalysis 34: 1839-1847.
  15. Jarullah, A.T., Mujtaba, I.M., Alastair, S.W. (2011). Kinetic parameter estimation and simulation of trickle-bed reactor for hydrodesulfurization of crude oil. Chem. Eng. Sci. 66: 859-871.
  16. Nawaf, A.T., Gheni, S.A., Jarullah, A.T., Mujtaba, I.M. (2015). Optimal Design of a Trickle Bed Reactor for Light Fuel Oxidative Desulfurization Based on Experiments and Modeling. Energy & Fuels, 29: 3366-3376.
  17. Zeki, A.S.N., Ali, M.S., Al-Karkhi, R.S. (2017). Investigation Desulfurization Method Using Air and Zinc Oxide/Activated Carbon Composite. Iraqi J. Chem. Pet. Eng. 18: 37-46.
  18. Hernandez, P.S., Chiappero, M., Russo, N., Fino, D. (2011). A novel ZnO-based adsorbent for biogas purification in H2 production systems. Chem. Eng. J. 176: 272-279.
  19. Levenspiel, O. (1999). Chemical Reaction Engineering. Third ed. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: New York.
  20. Nawaf, A.T., Jarullah, A.T., Gheni, S.A., Mujtaba, I.M. (2015). Development of Kinetic and Process Model for Oxidative Desulphurization of Light Fuel using Experiments and Parameter Estimation Technique. Ind. Eng. Res. 54: 12503-12515.
  21. Leyva-Ramos, R.C., Geankoplis, J. C. (1994). Diffusion in Liquid Filled Pores of Activated Carbon. I. Pore Volume Diffusion. Chem. Eng. 72: 262-271.
  22. Tang, M.J., Kalberer, M. (2015). Supplement of Compilation and evaluation of gas phase diffusion coefficients of reactive trace gases in the atmosphere : Volume 2. Diffusivities of organic compounds, pressure-normalised mean free paths, and average Knudsen numbers for gas uptake calcu. Atmos. Chem. Phys. 15: 5585-5598.
  23. Bird, R.B., Stewart, W.E. (2002). Transport Phenomena, Second ed. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: New York.
  24. Jo, J., Baek Lee, S., Mok, S.Y. (2017). Effect of Calcination Temperature Of MnxOy/g-Al2O3 catalyst On Ozone Decomposition. Research World International Conference, Poland, 5-8.
  25. Saleh, A.T., Sulaiman, O.K., AL-Hammadi, A.S., Dafalla, H., Danmaliki, I.G. (2017). Adsorptive desulfurization of thiophene, benzothiophene and dibenzothiophene over activated carbon manganese oxide nanocomposite: With column system evaluation. Cleaner Pro. 17: 959-6526.
  26. Chan, K., Jung, J., Lee, J., Sang, B., Kyungil, C., Sang, H. (2000). Hydrodesulphurization of DBT, 4- MDBT, and 4,6-DMDBT on fluorinated CoMoS/Al2O3 catalysts. Applied Cat. A, 200: 233-242.
  27. Nawaf, A.T., Gheni, S.A., Jarullah, A.T., Mujtaba, I.M. (2015). Improvement of Fuel Quality by Oxidative Desulfurization: Design of Synthetic Catalyst for the Process. Fuel Pro. Tech. 138: 337-343.