Catalytic Conversion of Residual Palm Oil in Spent Bleaching Earth (SBE) By HZSM-5 Zeolite based-Catalysts

DOI: https://doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.13.3.1929.456-465
Copyright (c) 2018 Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis
Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
Cover Image

Article Metrics: (Click on the Metric tab below to see the detail)

Article Info
Submitted: 10-12-2017
Published: 04-12-2018
Section: Original Research Articles
Fulltext PDF Tell your colleagues Email the author

Bleaching earth is used to remove colour, phospholipids, oxidized products, metals and residual gums in the palm oil process refinery. Once adsorption process end, the spent bleaching earth (SBE) which contains approximately 20-40 wt. % of the adsorbed oil was usually disposed to landfills. The oil content in SBE was recovered by catalytic cracking using transition metal (Cu, Zn, Cr, and Ni) doped HZSM-5 zeolite in a batch reactor (pyrolysis zone) and fixed bed reactor (catalyst bed). The 5 wt. % of each metallic was introduced in HZSM-5 zeolite using incipient wetness impregnation method. The main objective of this study was to investigate the performance of modified HZSM-5 zeolite for cracking of residual oil in SBE. The physicochemical properties of the catalysts were characterized    using XRD, FTIR, Nitrogen adsorption, and TPD-NH3.  Liquid biofuel obtained from cracking was analyzed by GC-MS. The incorporation of metallic loaded on HZSM-5 zeolite has reduced the surface area of the catalyst that gives a significant impact to the catalytic behavior. The Ni/HZSM-5 zeolite exhibited the highest yields of alkenes as compared to others but slightly decreases the yield of alkanes whereas in contrast with the Cr/HZSM-5, the obtained alkanes were found higher than that of alkenes. In addition, the Cr/HZSM-5 and Ni/HZSM-5 favored the conversion of polycyclic aromatics to mono-aromatics, whereas parent HZSM-5 catalyst favored the formation of poly-aromatics. These results indicated that the metal loaded on HZSM-5 can promote the cracking of heavy fractions to lighter hydrocarbon thus can be used for cracking oil in SBE. Copyright © 2018 BCREC Group. All rights reserved

Received: 10th December 2017; Revised: 31st May 2018; Accepted: 10th June 2018

How to Cite: Musa, M.L., Mat, R., Abdullah, T.A.T. (2018). Catalytic Conversion of Residual Palm Oil in Spent Bleaching Earth (SBE) By HZSM-5 Zeolite based-Catalysts. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 13 (3): 456-465 (doi:10.9767/bcrec.13.3.1929.456-465)

Permalink/DOI: https://doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.13.3.1929.456-465

 

Keywords

Palm Oil; Spent Bleaching Earth; Catalytic Cracking; Zeolite HZSM-5

  1. Mohd Lukman Musa 
    Faculty of Chemical and Energy Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia , 81310 UTM Skudai, Johor Bahru, Malaysia
  2. Ramli Mat 
    Faculty of Chemical and Energy Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia , 81310 UTM Skudai, Johor Bahru, Malaysia
  3. Tuan Amran Tuan Abdullah 
    Faculty of Chemical and Energy Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia , 81310 UTM Skudai, Johor Bahru, Malaysia
  1. Taylor, D.R., Jenkins, D.B., (1990). Factors Affecting the Pyrophorisity of Spent Bleaching Clay. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc., 67: 678.
  2. Suhartini, S., Hidayat, N., Wijaya, S. (2011). Physical Properties Characterization of Fuel Briquette Made from Spent Bleaching Earth. Biomass and Bioenergy, 35: 4209-4214.
  3. Boey, P.L., Saleha, M.I., Sapawea, N., Ganesana, S.,Maniama, G.P., Mohamed Hag Ali, D. (2011). Pyrolysis of Residual Palm Oil in Spent Bleaching Clay by Modified Tubular Furnace and Analysis of the Products by GC–MS. Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis, 91: 199-204.
  4. Prajitno, D.H., Roesyadi, A., Al-Muttaqii, M., Marlinda, L. (2017). Hydrocracking of Non-edible Vegetable Oils with Co-Ni/HZSM-5 Catalyst to Gasoil Containing Aromatics. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis. 12(3): 318-328.
  5. Maher, K.D., Bressler, D.C. (2007). Pyrolysis of Triglyceride Materials for the Production of Renewable Fuels and Chemicals. Bioresource Technology, 98:2351-2368
  6. Adjaye, J.D., Bakhshi, N.N. (1995). Production of Hydrocarbons by Catalytic Upgrading Of a Fast Pyrolysis Bio-Oil. Part I: Conversion over Various Catalysts. Fuel Process. Technol., 45:161-183.
  7. Zhang, Q., Chang, J., Wang, T.J., Xu, Y. (2007). Review of Biomass Pyrolysis Oil Properties and Upgrading Research. Energy Convers. Manage., 48: 87-92.
  8. Williams, P.T., Nugranad, N. (2000). Comparison of Products from the Pyrolysis and Catalytic Pyrolysis of Rice Husks. Energy, 25: 493–513.
  9. Taufiqurrahmi, N., Mohamed, A.R., Bhatia, S. (2007). Production of Biofuel from Waste Cooking Palm Oil using Nanocrystalline Zeolite as Catalyst: Process Optimization Studies. Bioresource Technology, 102: 10686–10694.
  10. Botas, J.A., Serrano, D.P., Garcíac, A., Vicentea, J.D., Ramosa, R. (2012). Catalytic Conversion of Rapeseed Oil into Raw Chemicals and Fuels Over Ni- and Mo-modified nanocrystalline ZSM-5 zeolite, Catalysis Today. 195: 59-79
  11. Rahimi and R. Karimzadeh (2011). Catalytic Cracking of Hydrocarbons over Modified ZSM-5 Zeolites to Produce Light Olefins: A Review Applied Catalysis A: General, 398: 1-17.
  12. Roesyadi, A., Hariprajitno, D., Nurjannah, N., Savitri, S.D. (2013). HZSM-5 Catalyst for Cracking Palm Oil to Gasoline: A Comparative Study with and without Impregnation. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 7 (3): 185-190.
  13. Tsai, W.T., Chen, H.P., Hsieh, M.F., Sun, H.F., Chain, S.F. (2002). Regeneration of Spent Bleaching Earth by Pyrolysis in A Rotary Furnace. J. Anal. Appl. Pyrol., 63: 157–170.
  14. Mana, M., Ouali, M.S., De Menorval. L.C. (2007). Removal of Basic Dyes from Aqueous Solutions with a Treated Spent Bleaching Earth. J. Colloid Interface Sci., 307: 9-16.
  15. Zakaria, Z.Y., Linnekoski, J.,S. Amin, N.A. (2012). Catalyst Screening for Conversion of Glycerol to Light Olefins. Chemical Engineering Journal, 207-208: 803-813.
  16. Zhao, X., Wei, L., Julson, J., Qiao, Q., Dubey, A., Anderson, G. (2015). Catalytic Cracking of Non-Edible Sunflower Oil over ZSM-5 for Hydrocarbon Bio-Jet Fuel. New Biotechnology, 32: 2.
  17. Jiang Y.J., Juan J.C., Meng X.J., Cao W.L., Yarmo M.A., Zhang J.C. (2007). Preparation and Catalytic Application of Novel Water Tolerant Solid Acid Catalysts of Zirconium Sulfate/HZSM-5. Chemical Research in Chinese Universities. 23: 349–354.
  18. Maia A.J., Louis B., Lam Y.L., Pereira M.M. (2010). Ni-ZSM-5 catalysts: Detailed Characterization of Metal Sites for Proper Catalyst Design. Journal of Catalysis, 269(1): 103-109.
  19. Suprun, W., Lutecki, M., Haber, T., Papp, H. (2009). Acidic Catalysts for the Dehydration of Glycerol: Activity and Deactivation. J. Mol. Catal., A: Chem. 309: 71–78.
  20. Rodríguez-González, L., Hermes, F. Bertmer, M., Rodríguez-Castellón, E., Jiménez-López, A. Simon, U. (2007).The Acid Properties of H-ZSM-5 as Studied by NH3-TPD and 27Al-MAS-NMR Spectroscopy. Appl. Catal. A: Gen., 328: 174–182.
  21. Franke, M.E., Simon, U. (2004). Solvate-supported proton transport in zeolites. ChemPhysChem, 5: 465–472.
  22. Murata, K., Takahara, I. Inaba, M. (2008). Propane Formation by Aqueous-Phase Reforming of Glycerol over Pt/H-ZSM5 Catalysts. React. Kinet. Catal. Lett., 93: 59-66.
  23. Damjanovic´, L., Auroux, A. (2010). Determination of Acid/Base Properties by Temperature Programmed Desorption (TPD) and Adsorption Calorimetry Zeolite Characterization and Catalysis, in: A.W. Chester, E.G. Derouane (Eds.), Springer, Netherlands, pp. 107–167.
  24. Ong, Y.K., Bhatia S. (2010). The Current Status and Perspectives of Biofuel Production via Catalytic Cracking of Edible and Non-Edible Oils, Energy. 35: 111–119.
  25. Namchot, W., Jitkarnka S. (2015). Upgrading Of Waste Tyre-Derived Oil from Waste Tyre Pyrolysis Over Ni Catalyst Supported On HZSM-5 Zeolite. Chemical Engineering Transactions, 45: 775-780.
  26. Huang, Y.P., Chang, J.I. (2010). Biodiesel Production from Residual Oils Recovered from Spent Bleaching Earth. Renewable Energy. 35: 269–274
  27. Pizarrro, A.V.L., Park, E.Y. (2003). Lipase-Catalyzed Production of Biodiesel Fuel From Vegetable Oil Contained in Waste Activated Bleaching Earth. Process Biochem. 38: 1077–82.
  28. Katikaneni S.P.R., Adjaye J.D., Bakhshi N.N. (1995). Catalytic Conversion of Canola Oil to Fuels and Chemicals over Various Cracking Catalysts. Can. J. Chem. Eng., 73: 484-497.