Thermal Degradation Kinetics of Capsaicin on Blanching-Brine-Calcium Pretreatment Red Chili Pepper Drying

DOI: https://doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.13.2.1660.365-372
Copyright (c) 2018 Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis
Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
Cover Image

Article Metrics: (Click on the Metric tab below to see the detail)

Article Info
Submitted: 26-10-2017
Published: 11-06-2018
Section: Original Research Articles
Fulltext PDF Tell your colleagues Email the author

Post-harvest red chili pepper (Capsicum frutescens) has highly capsaicin as bioactive compound and moisture content. However, capsaicin is the responsible bioactive compound in chili for hot sensation that easy to degrade by partial oxidation caused introduction of heat in drying process. The objective of this research was to investigate kinetics of capsaicin degradation in the drying process under blanching-brine-calcium pretreatment and various temperatures. For this purposes, chili provided local farmer was pretreated using blanching-brine-calcium pretreatment. Afterward, they were dried at 40, 50, 60, and 70 oC for 8 hours. Degradation of capsaicin content was observed every 2 hours using Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC). Results showed kinetics of capsaicin degradation was categorized as second order reaction. At the same temperature and time, capsaicin retention of blanching-brine-calcium pretreated chili has highest value. The temperature dependence of the capsaicin degradation rate was analyzed using Arrhenius correlation. The activation energy for degradation rate of capsaicin during drying was around 45.10367 kJ/mol.K. It indicated the degradation rate increased as well as increased the temperature at the same time. Copyright © 2018 BCREC Group. All rights reserved

Received: 26th October 2017; Revised: 14th February 2018; Accepted: 18th February 2018; Available online: 11st June 2018; Published regularly: 1st August 2018

How to Cite: Arifin, U.F., Djaeni, M. (2018). Thermal Degradation Kinetics of Capsaicin on Blanching-Brine-Calcium Pretreatment Red Chili Pepper Drying. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 13 (2): 365-372 (doi:10.9767/bcrec.13.2.1660.365-372)

 

Keywords

Capsaicin; Kinetics; Pretreatment; Red Chili Pepper Drying

  1. Uma Fadzilia Arifin  Scopus
    Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Diponegoro University Jl. Prof. Soedarto, SH, Tembalang, Semarang, Indonesia
    Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Diponegoro University
  2. Mohamad Djaeni  Orcid Scopus
    Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Diponegoro University Jl. Prof. Soedarto, SH, Tembalang, Semarang, Indonesia
    Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Diponegoro University
  1. Nwangwa, J.N., Udefa, A.L., Anyaibe, S.C., Iragunima, A.S., Eze, N.C. (2016). Comparative Effect of Chilli Pepper (Capsicum frutescens) Extract and Capsaicin on Some Haematological Parameters and Serum Electrolytes in Albino Wistar Rats. International Blood Research & Reviews, 6(3): 1-8.
  2. Duelund, L., Mouritsen, O.G. (2017). Contents of Capsaicinoids in Chillies Grown in Denmark. Food Chemistry, 221: 913-918.
  3. Omolo, M.A., Wong, Z.-Z., Mergen, A.K., Hastings, J.C., Le, N.C., Reiland, H.A., Case, K.A., Baumier, D.J. (2014). Antimicrobial Properties of Chili Peppers. Journal of Infectious Diseases and Therapy, 2(4). doi:10.4172/2332-0877.1000145
  4. Hayman, M., Kam, P.C.A. (2008). Capsaicin: A Review of Its Pharmacology and Clinical Applications. Current Anaesthesia & Critical Care, 19: 338-343.
  5. de Lourdes Reyes-Escogido, M., Gonzalez-Mondragon, E.G., Vazquez-Tzompantzi, E. (2011). Chemical and Pharmacological Aspects of Capsaicin. Molecules, 16: 1253-1270.
  6. Cao, S., Chen, H., Xiang, S., Hong, J., Weng, L., Zhu, H., Liu, Q. (2015). Anti-Cancer Effects and Mechanisms of Capsaicin in Chili Peppers. American Journal of Plant Sciences, 6: 3075-3081.
  7. Chuichulcherm, S., Prommakort, S., Srinophakun, P., Thanapimmetha, A. (2013). Optimization of Capsaicin Purification from Capsicum frutescens linn. with Column Chromatography using Taguchi Design. Industrial Crops and Products, 44: 473-479.
  8. Anandakumar, P., Kamaraj, S., Jagan, S., Ramakrishnan, G., Devaki, T. (2013). Capsaicin Provokes Apoptosis and Restricts Benzo(a)pyrene Induced Lung Tumorigenesis in Swiss Albino Mice. International Immunopharmacology, 17: 254-259.
  9. Huynh, H.T., Teel, R.W. (2005). In Vitro Antimutagenicity of Capsaicin toward Heterocyclic Amines in Salmonella typhimurium Strain TA98. Anticancer Research, 25: 117-120.
  10. Venier, N.A., Colquhoun, A.J., Sasaki, H., Kiss, A., Sugar, L., Adomat, H., Fleshner, N.E., Klotz, L.H., Venkateswaran, V. (2015). Capsaicin: A Novel Radio-Sensitizing Agent for Prostate Cancer. The Prostate, 75(2): 113-125.
  11. Redington, K.L., Disenhouse, T., Strantzas, S.C., Gladstone, R., Wei, C., Tropak, M.B., Dai, X., Manlhiot, C., Li, J., Redington, A.N. (2012). Remote Cardioprotection by Direct Peripheral Nerve Stimulation and Topical Capsaicin is Mediated by Circulating Humoral Factors. Basic Research in Cardiology, 107(2): 241. doi: 10.1007/s00395-011-0241-5
  12. Zheng, J., Zheng, S., Feng, Q., Zhang, Q., Xiao, X. (2017). Dietary Capsaicin and Its Anti-Obesity Potency: from Mechanism to Clinical Implications. Bioscience Reports, 37(3): 1-9.
  13. Jung, H.S., Lim, Y., Kim, E.-K. (2014). Therapeutic Phytogenic Compounds for Obesity and Diabetes. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 15: 21505-21537.
  14. Toyoda, T., Shi, L., Takasu, S., Cho, Y., Kiriyama, Y., Nishikawa, A., Ogawa, K., Tatematsu, M., Tsukamoto, T. (2015). Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Capsaicin and Piperine on Helicobacter pylori-Induced Chronic Gastritis in Mongolian Gerbils. Helicobacter, 21: 131-142.
  15. Kaleemullah, S., Kailappan, R. (2005). Drying Kinetics of Red Chillies in A Rotary Dryer. Biosystems Engineering, 92(1): 15-23.
  16. Akonor, P.T., Tortoe, C. (2014). Effect of Blanching and Osmotic Pre-treatment on Drying Kinetics, Shrinkage and Rehydration of Chayote (Sechium edule) during Convective Drying. British Journal of Applied Science & Technology, 4(8): 1215-1229.
  17. Akoy, E.O.M. (2014). Experimental Characterization and Modeling of Thin-Layer Drying of Mango Slices. International Food Research Journal, 21(5): 1911-1917.
  18. Rabha, D.K., Muthukumar, P., Somayaji, C. (2017). Energy and Exergy Analyses of The Solar Drying Processes of Ghost Chilli Pepper and Ginger. Renewable Energy, 105: 764-773.
  19. Djaeni, M., Anggoro, D., Santoso, G.W., Agustina, D., Asiah, N., Hii, C.L. (2014). Enhancing The Food Product Drying with Air Dehumidified by Zeolite. Advance Journal of Food Science and Technology, 6(7): 833-838.
  20. Beigi, M. (2016). Energy Efficiency and Moisture Diffusivity of Apple Slices during Convective Drying. Food Science and Technology, 36(1): 145-150.
  21. Soysal, Y., Ayhan, Z., Eştürk, O., Arikan, M.F. (2009). Intermittent Microwave-Convective Drying of Red Pepper: Drying Kinetics, Physical (Colour and Texture) and Sensory Quality. Biosystems Engineering, 103: 455-463.
  22. Toontom, M., Meenune, M., Posri, W., Lertsiri, S. (2012). Effect of Drying Method on Physical and Chemical Quality, Hotness and Volatile Flavour Characteristics of Dried Chilli. International Food Research Journal, 19(3): 1023-1031.
  23. Tavakolipour, H., Mokhtarian, M. (2015). Drying of Chili Pepper in Different Conditions. In Proceedings of The IRES 4th International Confererence, 71–74. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia: TheIRES 4th International Confererence.
  24. Liu, L., Wang, Y., Zhao, D., An, K., Ding, S., Wang, Z. (2014). Effect of Carbonic Maceration Pre-treatment on Drying Kinetics of Chilli (Capsicum annuum L.) Flesh and Quality of Dried Product. Food and Bioprocess Technology, 7(9): 2516-2527.
  25. Abano, E,E., Ma, H., Qu, W., Teye, E. (2011). Modeling Pre-Treatments Effect on Drying Kinetics of Garlic (Allium sativum L.) Slices in A Convective Hot Air Dryer. African Journal of Food Science, 5(7): 425-435.
  26. Phomkong, W., Soponronnarit, S., Thammarutwasik, P. (2010). Chemical Pretreatments Affecting Drying Characteristics of Chilli (cv. Huarou Yon). Drying Technology, 28: 1466-1476.
  27. Lewicki, P.P., Michaluk, E. (2004). Drying of Tomato Pretreated with Calcium. Drying Technology : An International Journal, 22(8): 1813-1827.
  28. Ekwere, M.R. (2015). Thin Layer Chromatographic Analysis of Capsaicin and Moisture Contents from Three Varieties of Capsicum Peppers. Journal of Chromatography & Separation Techniques, 6(4). doi:10.4172/2157-7064.S1.010
  29. Rekha, P.N., Singhal, S., Pandit, A.B. (2004). A Study on Degradation Kinetics of Thiamine in Red Gram Splits (Cajanus cajan L.). Food Chemistry, 85: 591-598.
  30. Djaeni, M., Arifin, U.F., Sasongko, S.B. (2017). Physical-Chemical Quality of Onion Analyzed Under Drying Temperature. In AIP Conference Proceedings, 1823: 1-5. Yogyakarta, Indonesia: The International Conference on Chemistry, Chemical Process and Engineering (IC3PE).
  31. Reis, R.C., Castro, V.C., Devilla, I.A., Oliveira, C.A., Barbosa, L.S., Rodovalho, R. (2013). Effect of Drying Temperature on The Nutritional and Antioxidant Qualities of Cumari Peppers from Pará (Capsicum chinense Jacqui). Brazilian Journal of Chemical Engineering, 30(2): 337-343.
  32. Díaz, J., Pomar, F., Bernal, Á., Merino, F. (2004). Peroxidases and The Metabolism of Capsaicin in Capsicum annuum L. Phytochemistry Reviews, 3: 141-157.
  33. Renate, D., Pratama, F., Yuliati, K., Priyanto, G. (2014). Model Kinetika Degradasi Capcaisin Cabai Merah Giling pada Kondisi Suhu Penyimpanan. Agritech, 34(3): 330-336.
  34. Kaleemullah, S., Kailappan, R. (2006). Modelling of Thin-Layer Drying Kinetics of Red Chillies. Journal of Food Engineering, 76: 531-537.
  35. Katritzky, A.R., Xu, Y.J., Vakulenko, A.V., Wilcox, A.L., Bley, K.R. (2003). Model Compounds of Caged Capsaicin: Design, Synthesis, and Photoreactivity. Journal of Organic Chemistry, 68: 9100-9104.
  36. Castillo, E., Torres-gavila, A., Severiano, P., Arturo, N., Lopez-Munguia, A. (2007). Food Chemistry Lipase-Catalyzed Synthesis of Pungent Capsaicin Analogues. Food Chemistry, 100: 1202-1208.