Thermal Degradation Kinetics of Capsaicin on Blanching-Brine-Calcium Pretreatment Red Chili Pepper Drying
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
Post-harvest red chili pepper (Capsicum frutescens) has highly capsaicin as bioactive compound and moisture content. However, capsaicin is the responsible bioactive compound in chili for hot sensation that easy to degrade by partial oxidation caused introduction of heat in drying process. The objective of this research was to investigate kinetics of capsaicin degradation in the drying process under blanching-brine-calcium pretreatment and various temperatures. For this purposes, chili provided local farmer was pretreated using blanching-brine-calcium pretreatment. Afterward, they were dried at 40, 50, 60, and 70 oC for 8 hours. Degradation of capsaicin content was observed every 2 hours using Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC). Results showed kinetics of capsaicin degradation was categorized as second order reaction. At the same temperature and time, capsaicin retention of blanching-brine-calcium pretreated chili has highest value. The temperature dependence of the capsaicin degradation rate was analyzed using Arrhenius correlation. The activation energy for degradation rate of capsaicin during drying was around 45.10367 kJ/mol.K. It indicated the degradation rate increased as well as increased the temperature at the same time. Copyright © 2018 BCREC Group. All rights reserved
Received: 26th October 2017; Revised: 14th February 2018; Accepted: 18th February 2018; Available online: 11st June 2018; Published regularly: 1st August 2018
How to Cite: Arifin, U.F., Djaeni, M. (2018). Thermal Degradation Kinetics of Capsaicin on Blanching-Brine-Calcium Pretreatment Red Chili Pepper Drying. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 13 (2): 365-372 (doi:10.9767/bcrec.13.2.1660.365-372)
- Nwangwa, J.N., Udefa, A.L., Anyaibe, S.C., Iragunima, A.S., Eze, N.C. (2016). Comparative Effect of Chilli Pepper (Capsicum frutescens) Extract and Capsaicin on Some Haematological Parameters and Serum Electrolytes in Albino Wistar Rats. International Blood Research & Reviews, 6(3): 1-8.
- Duelund, L., Mouritsen, O.G. (2017). Contents of Capsaicinoids in Chillies Grown in Denmark. Food Chemistry, 221: 913-918.
- Omolo, M.A., Wong, Z.-Z., Mergen, A.K., Hastings, J.C., Le, N.C., Reiland, H.A., Case, K.A., Baumier, D.J. (2014). Antimicrobial Properties of Chili Peppers. Journal of Infectious Diseases and Therapy, 2(4). doi:10.4172/2332-0877.1000145
- Hayman, M., Kam, P.C.A. (2008). Capsaicin: A Review of Its Pharmacology and Clinical Applications. Current Anaesthesia & Critical Care, 19: 338-343.
- de Lourdes Reyes-Escogido, M., Gonzalez-Mondragon, E.G., Vazquez-Tzompantzi, E. (2011). Chemical and Pharmacological Aspects of Capsaicin. Molecules, 16: 1253-1270.
- Cao, S., Chen, H., Xiang, S., Hong, J., Weng, L., Zhu, H., Liu, Q. (2015). Anti-Cancer Effects and Mechanisms of Capsaicin in Chili Peppers. American Journal of Plant Sciences, 6: 3075-3081.
- Chuichulcherm, S., Prommakort, S., Srinophakun, P., Thanapimmetha, A. (2013). Optimization of Capsaicin Purification from Capsicum frutescens linn. with Column Chromatography using Taguchi Design. Industrial Crops and Products, 44: 473-479.
- Anandakumar, P., Kamaraj, S., Jagan, S., Ramakrishnan, G., Devaki, T. (2013). Capsaicin Provokes Apoptosis and Restricts Benzo(a)pyrene Induced Lung Tumorigenesis in Swiss Albino Mice. International Immunopharmacology, 17: 254-259.
- Huynh, H.T., Teel, R.W. (2005). In Vitro Antimutagenicity of Capsaicin toward Heterocyclic Amines in Salmonella typhimurium Strain TA98. Anticancer Research, 25: 117-120.
- Venier, N.A., Colquhoun, A.J., Sasaki, H., Kiss, A., Sugar, L., Adomat, H., Fleshner, N.E., Klotz, L.H., Venkateswaran, V. (2015). Capsaicin: A Novel Radio-Sensitizing Agent for Prostate Cancer. The Prostate, 75(2): 113-125.
- Redington, K.L., Disenhouse, T., Strantzas, S.C., Gladstone, R., Wei, C., Tropak, M.B., Dai, X., Manlhiot, C., Li, J., Redington, A.N. (2012). Remote Cardioprotection by Direct Peripheral Nerve Stimulation and Topical Capsaicin is Mediated by Circulating Humoral Factors. Basic Research in Cardiology, 107(2): 241. doi: 10.1007/s00395-011-0241-5
- Zheng, J., Zheng, S., Feng, Q., Zhang, Q., Xiao, X. (2017). Dietary Capsaicin and Its Anti-Obesity Potency: from Mechanism to Clinical Implications. Bioscience Reports, 37(3): 1-9.
- Jung, H.S., Lim, Y., Kim, E.-K. (2014). Therapeutic Phytogenic Compounds for Obesity and Diabetes. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 15: 21505-21537.
- Toyoda, T., Shi, L., Takasu, S., Cho, Y., Kiriyama, Y., Nishikawa, A., Ogawa, K., Tatematsu, M., Tsukamoto, T. (2015). Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Capsaicin and Piperine on Helicobacter pylori-Induced Chronic Gastritis in Mongolian Gerbils. Helicobacter, 21: 131-142.
- Kaleemullah, S., Kailappan, R. (2005). Drying Kinetics of Red Chillies in A Rotary Dryer. Biosystems Engineering, 92(1): 15-23.
- Akonor, P.T., Tortoe, C. (2014). Effect of Blanching and Osmotic Pre-treatment on Drying Kinetics, Shrinkage and Rehydration of Chayote (Sechium edule) during Convective Drying. British Journal of Applied Science & Technology, 4(8): 1215-1229.
- Akoy, E.O.M. (2014). Experimental Characterization and Modeling of Thin-Layer Drying of Mango Slices. International Food Research Journal, 21(5): 1911-1917.
- Rabha, D.K., Muthukumar, P., Somayaji, C. (2017). Energy and Exergy Analyses of The Solar Drying Processes of Ghost Chilli Pepper and Ginger. Renewable Energy, 105: 764-773.
- Djaeni, M., Anggoro, D., Santoso, G.W., Agustina, D., Asiah, N., Hii, C.L. (2014). Enhancing The Food Product Drying with Air Dehumidified by Zeolite. Advance Journal of Food Science and Technology, 6(7): 833-838.
- Beigi, M. (2016). Energy Efficiency and Moisture Diffusivity of Apple Slices during Convective Drying. Food Science and Technology, 36(1): 145-150.
- Soysal, Y., Ayhan, Z., Eştürk, O., Arikan, M.F. (2009). Intermittent Microwave-Convective Drying of Red Pepper: Drying Kinetics, Physical (Colour and Texture) and Sensory Quality. Biosystems Engineering, 103: 455-463.
- Toontom, M., Meenune, M., Posri, W., Lertsiri, S. (2012). Effect of Drying Method on Physical and Chemical Quality, Hotness and Volatile Flavour Characteristics of Dried Chilli. International Food Research Journal, 19(3): 1023-1031.
- Tavakolipour, H., Mokhtarian, M. (2015). Drying of Chili Pepper in Different Conditions. In Proceedings of The IRES 4th International Confererence, 71–74. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia: TheIRES 4th International Confererence.
- Liu, L., Wang, Y., Zhao, D., An, K., Ding, S., Wang, Z. (2014). Effect of Carbonic Maceration Pre-treatment on Drying Kinetics of Chilli (Capsicum annuum L.) Flesh and Quality of Dried Product. Food and Bioprocess Technology, 7(9): 2516-2527.
- Abano, E,E., Ma, H., Qu, W., Teye, E. (2011). Modeling Pre-Treatments Effect on Drying Kinetics of Garlic (Allium sativum L.) Slices in A Convective Hot Air Dryer. African Journal of Food Science, 5(7): 425-435.
- Phomkong, W., Soponronnarit, S., Thammarutwasik, P. (2010). Chemical Pretreatments Affecting Drying Characteristics of Chilli (cv. Huarou Yon). Drying Technology, 28: 1466-1476.
- Lewicki, P.P., Michaluk, E. (2004). Drying of Tomato Pretreated with Calcium. Drying Technology : An International Journal, 22(8): 1813-1827.
- Ekwere, M.R. (2015). Thin Layer Chromatographic Analysis of Capsaicin and Moisture Contents from Three Varieties of Capsicum Peppers. Journal of Chromatography & Separation Techniques, 6(4). doi:10.4172/2157-7064.S1.010
- Rekha, P.N., Singhal, S., Pandit, A.B. (2004). A Study on Degradation Kinetics of Thiamine in Red Gram Splits (Cajanus cajan L.). Food Chemistry, 85: 591-598.
- Djaeni, M., Arifin, U.F., Sasongko, S.B. (2017). Physical-Chemical Quality of Onion Analyzed Under Drying Temperature. In AIP Conference Proceedings, 1823: 1-5. Yogyakarta, Indonesia: The International Conference on Chemistry, Chemical Process and Engineering (IC3PE).
- Reis, R.C., Castro, V.C., Devilla, I.A., Oliveira, C.A., Barbosa, L.S., Rodovalho, R. (2013). Effect of Drying Temperature on The Nutritional and Antioxidant Qualities of Cumari Peppers from Pará (Capsicum chinense Jacqui). Brazilian Journal of Chemical Engineering, 30(2): 337-343.
- Díaz, J., Pomar, F., Bernal, Á., Merino, F. (2004). Peroxidases and The Metabolism of Capsaicin in Capsicum annuum L. Phytochemistry Reviews, 3: 141-157.
- Renate, D., Pratama, F., Yuliati, K., Priyanto, G. (2014). Model Kinetika Degradasi Capcaisin Cabai Merah Giling pada Kondisi Suhu Penyimpanan. Agritech, 34(3): 330-336.
- Kaleemullah, S., Kailappan, R. (2006). Modelling of Thin-Layer Drying Kinetics of Red Chillies. Journal of Food Engineering, 76: 531-537.
- Katritzky, A.R., Xu, Y.J., Vakulenko, A.V., Wilcox, A.L., Bley, K.R. (2003). Model Compounds of Caged Capsaicin: Design, Synthesis, and Photoreactivity. Journal of Organic Chemistry, 68: 9100-9104.
- Castillo, E., Torres-gavila, A., Severiano, P., Arturo, N., Lopez-Munguia, A. (2007). Food Chemistry Lipase-Catalyzed Synthesis of Pungent Capsaicin Analogues. Food Chemistry, 100: 1202-1208.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
As a journal Author, you have rights for a large range of uses of your article, including use by your employing institute or company. These Author rights can be exercised without the need to obtain specific permission.
Authors publishing in BCREC journals have wide rights to use their works for teaching and scholarly purposes without needing to seek permission, including: use for classroom teaching by Author or Author's institutionand presentation at a meeting or conference and distributing copies to attendees; use for internal training by author's company; distribution to colleagues for their reseearch use; use in a subsequent compilation of the author's works; inclusion in a thesis or dissertation; reuse of portions or extrcats from the article in other works (with full acknowledgement of final article); preparation of derivative works (other than commercial purposes) (with full acknowledgement of final article); voluntary posting on open web sites operated by author or author’s institution for scholarly purposes (follow CC by SA License).
Authors and readers can copy and redistribute the material in any medium or format, as well as remix, transform, and build upon the material for any purpose, even commercially, but they must give appropriate credit (cite to the article or content), provide a link to the license, and indicate if changes were made. If you remix, transform, or build upon the material, you must distribute your contributions under the same license as the original.
Copyright Transfer Agreement
The Authors submitting a manuscript do so on the understanding that if accepted for publication, copyright publishing of the article shall be assigned to Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis journal and Department of Chemical Engineering Diponegoro University as publisher of the journal.
Copyright encompasses exclusive rights to reproduce and deliver the article in all form and media, including reprints, photographs, microfilms and any other similar reproductions, as well as translations. The reproduction of any part of this journal, its storage in databases and its transmission by any form or media, such as electronic, electrostatic and mechanical copies, photocopies, recordings, magnetic media, etc., will be allowed only with a written permission from Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis journal and Department of Chemical Engineering Diponegoro University.
Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis journal and Department of Chemical Engineering Diponegoro University, the Editors and the Advisory International Editorial Board make every effort to ensure that no wrong or misleading data, opinions or statements be published in the journal. In any way, the contents of the articles and advertisements published in the Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis are sole and exclusive responsibility of their respective authors and advertisers.
Remember, even though we ask for a transfer of copyright, our journal authors retain (or are granted back) significant scholarly rights.
The Copyright Transfer Form can be downloaded here: [Copyright Transfer Form BCREC 2016]
The copyright form should be signed originally and send to the Editorial Office in the form of original mail, scanned document or fax :
Prof. Dr. I. Istadi (Editor-in-Chief)
Editorial Office of Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering and Catalysis
Department of Chemical Engineering, Diponegoro University
Jl. Prof. Soedarto, Kampus Undip Tembalang, Semarang, Central Java, Indonesia 50275
Telp.: +62-24-7460058, Fax.: +62-24-76480675