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Photocatalytic Efficiency of Titanium Dioxide for Dyes and Heavy Metals Removal from Wastewater

1Nanotechnology & Catalysis Research Centre, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

2Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Universitas Islam Indonesia, Kampus Terpadu UII, Jl. Kaliurang Km 14, Sleman, Yogyakarta, Indonesia

3Department of Chemical Engineering, Chukwuemeka Odumegwu Ojukwu University, Uli Campus, Anambra State, Nigeria

4 Department of Chemistry, Mutah University, P.O.BOX 7, Mutah 61710, Karak, Jordan

5 Department of Physics, Sathyabama Institute of Science and Technology, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India

6 Department of Chemistry, College of Natural and Computational Sciences, Debre Berhan University, Ethiopia

7 Faculty of Chemical Engineering, Ho Chi Minh City University of Technology (HCMUT), Ho Chi Minh City 700000 , Viet Nam

8 Vietnam National University Ho Chi Minh City, Ho Chi Minh City 700000, Viet Nam

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Received: 26 Mar 2022; Revised: 19 May 2022; Accepted: 20 May 2022; Available online: 25 May 2022; Published: 30 Jun 2022.
Editor(s): Istadi Istadi
Open Access Copyright (c) 2022 by Authors, Published by BCREC Group
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

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The hazardous toxicity of dye materials, even in low concentrations, harms ecological systems. It releases a large number of contaminants into the water, resulting as waste water. Dyes prevent the process of photosynthesis by obstructing light passage, lowers the oxygen levels dissolved in the water. Also, a good number of the dyes and heavy metals are carcinogenic and mutagenic to human beings. Heterogeneous photocatalysis is a promising technology for removing organic, inorganic, and microbial pollutants from water and wastewater. It is preferable to other conventional wastewater treatment approaches due to its benefit, such as low cost, environmental friendliness, ability to proceed at ambient temperature and pressure conditions, and to completely degrade pollutants into environmentally safe products with suitable measures. The titanium oxide (TiO2) is one of the most promising material that has gained enormous importance in the field of energy and environmental applications. The unique physicochemical properties of TiO2 make it one of the best candidates among existing photocatalysts. This review provides an overview of strategies employed to augment its catalytic performance as well as the impact of different operational parameters on the removal proficiency of various organic and inorganic pollutants in water and wastewater treatment. Copyright © 2022 by Authors, Published by BCREC Group. This is an open access article under the CC BY-SA License (

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Keywords: TiO2; Heterogeneous photocatalysis; Organic pollutants; Toxic heavy metal ion; Wastewater treatment
Funding: University of Malaya Research Grant under contract RU001-2019, RU001-2020 and RU001-2021; Mutah University under contract Mutah University

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