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Fe/Indonesian Natural Zeolite as Hydrodeoxygenation Catalyst in Green Diesel Production from Palm Oil

1Master of Chemistry Program, Graduate School, Sebelas Maret University, Jl. Ir. Sutami No. 36A, Kentingan, Jebres Surakarta, 57126, Indonesia

2Chemistry Department, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Sebelas Maret University, Jl. Ir. Sutami No. 36A, Kentingan, Jebres, Surakarta, Indonesia

3Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universitas Indonesia, Kampus UI Depok, Depok, 16424, Indonesia

Received: 24 Jul 2017; Revised: 10 Nov 2017; Accepted: 15 Nov 2017; Available online: 11 Jun 2018; Published: 1 Aug 2018.
Editor(s): Istadi Istadi
Open Access Copyright (c) 2018 by Authors, Published by BCREC Group under

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The Petroleum diesel-based fossil fuel remains the primary source of energy consumption in Indonesia. The utilization of this unrenewable fuel depletes fossil fuels; thus, an alternative, renewable fuel, such as one based on biohydrocarbon from biomass-green diesel-could be an option. In this work, green diesel was produced through the hydrodeoxygenation from palm oil and processed in a batch-stirred autoclave reactor over natural zeolite (NZ) and NZ modified with 3 wt.% Fe metal (Fe/NZ) as heterogeneous catalyst. NZ showed high crystallinity and suitability to the simulated pattern of the mordenite and clinoptilolite phases according to X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. The presence of Fe metal was further confirmed by XRD, with an additional small diffraction peak of Fe0 that appeared at 2θ = 44-45°. Meanwhile, NZ and Fe/NZ were also characterized by Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX), X-ray Fluorescence (XRF), and Surface Area Analyzer (SAA). The obtained materials were tested for the conversion of palm oil into diesel-range hydrocarbons (C15-C18) under conditions of 375 °C and 12 bar H2 for 2 h. NZ and Fe/NZ produced a liquid hydrocarbon with straight-chain (C15-C18) alkanes as the most abundant products. Based on Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) measurement, a higher conversion of palm oil into diesel-like hydrocarbons reached more than 58% and 89%, when NZ and Fe modified NZ (Fe/NZ), respectively were used as catalysts. 

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Keywords: Indonesian Natural Zeolite; Iron Metal; Hydrodeoxygenation; Palm Oil; Green Diesel
Funding: L’Oréal-UNESCO for Women in Science (FWIS National Fellowship 2014 Awarded to W.W.L) and Hibah MRG PNBP UNS 2017 project number 623/UN.27.21/PP/2017

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