skip to main content

Fe/Indonesian Natural Zeolite as Hydrodeoxygenation Catalyst in Green Diesel Production from Palm Oil

1Master of Chemistry Program, Graduate School, Sebelas Maret University, Jl. Ir. Sutami No. 36A, Kentingan, Jebres Surakarta, 57126, Indonesia

2Chemistry Department, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Sebelas Maret University, Jl. Ir. Sutami No. 36A, Kentingan, Jebres, Surakarta, Indonesia

3Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universitas Indonesia, Kampus UI Depok, Depok, 16424, Indonesia

Received: 24 Jul 2017; Revised: 10 Nov 2017; Accepted: 15 Nov 2017; Published: 1 Aug 2018; Available online: 11 Jun 2018.
Open Access Copyright (c) 2018 by Authors, Published by BCREC Group under http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0.

Citation Format:
Cover Image
Abstract

The Petroleum diesel-based fossil fuel remains the primary source of energy consumption in Indonesia. The utilization of this unrenewable fuel depletes fossil fuels; thus, an alternative, renewable fuel, such as one based on biohydrocarbon from biomass-green diesel-could be an option. In this work, green diesel was produced through the hydrodeoxygenation from palm oil and processed in a batch-stirred autoclave reactor over natural zeolite (NZ) and NZ modified with 3 wt.% Fe metal (Fe/NZ) as heterogeneous catalyst. NZ showed high crystallinity and suitability to the simulated pattern of the mordenite and clinoptilolite phases according to X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. The presence of Fe metal was further confirmed by XRD, with an additional small diffraction peak of Fe0 that appeared at 2θ = 44-45°. Meanwhile, NZ and Fe/NZ were also characterized by Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX), X-ray Fluorescence (XRF), and Surface Area Analyzer (SAA). The obtained materials were tested for the conversion of palm oil into diesel-range hydrocarbons (C15-C18) under conditions of 375 °C and 12 bar H2 for 2 h. NZ and Fe/NZ produced a liquid hydrocarbon with straight-chain (C15-C18) alkanes as the most abundant products. Based on Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) measurement, a higher conversion of palm oil into diesel-like hydrocarbons reached more than 58% and 89%, when NZ and Fe modified NZ (Fe/NZ), respectively were used as catalysts. 

Fulltext View|Download
Keywords: Indonesian Natural Zeolite; Iron Metal; Hydrodeoxygenation; Palm Oil; Green Diesel
Funding: L’Oréal-UNESCO for Women in Science (FWIS National Fellowship 2014 Awarded to W.W.L) and Hibah MRG PNBP UNS 2017 project number 623/UN.27.21/PP/2017

Article Metrics:

Article Info
Section: Original Research Articles
Language : EN
Statistics:
  1. Orozco, L.M., Echeverri, D.A., Sánchez, L., Rios, L.A. (2017). Second-generation Green Diesel from Castor Oil: Development of a New and Efficient Continuous-production Process. Chem. Eng. J., 322: 149-156
  2. Kusuma, R.I., Hadinoto, J.P., Ayucitra, A., Soetaredjo, F.E. (2013). Natural Zeolite from Pacitan Indonesia, as Catalyst Support for Transesterification of Palm Oil. Appl. Clay Sci., 74: 121-126
  3. Wang, Q., Gupta, N., Wen, G., Bee, S. (2017). Palladium and Carbon Synergistically Catalyzed Room-temperature Hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) of Vanillyl Alcohol-A Typical Lignin Model Molecule. J. Energy Chem., 26: 8-16
  4. de Sousa, F.P., Cardoso, C.C., Pasa, V.M.D. (2016). Producing Hydrocarbons for Green Diesel and Jet Fuel Formulation from Palm Kernel Fat over Pd/C. Fuel Process. Technol., 143: 35-42
  5. Veriansyah, B., Han, J.Y., Kim, S.K., Hong, S.A. (2012). Production of Renewable Diesel by Hydroprocessing of Soybean Oil: Effect of Catalysts. Fuel 94: 578-585
  6. Kaewmeesri, R., Srifa, A., Itthibenchapong, V., Faungnawakij, K. (2015). Deoxygenation of Waste Chicken Fats to Green Diesel over Ni/Al2O3: Effect of Water and Free Fatty Acid Content. Energ. Fuel. 29: 833-840
  7. Susanto, B.H., Nasikin, M., Wiyo, A. (2014). Synthesis of Renewable Diesel through Hydrodeoxygenation Using Pd/Zeolite Catalysts. Procedia Chem., 9: 139-150
  8. Soni, V.K., Sharma, P.R., Choudhary, G., Pandey, S., Sharma, R.K. (2017). Ni/Co-Natural Clay as Green Catalysts for Microalgae Oil to Diesel-Grade Hydrocarbons Conversion. ACS Sustain. Chem. Eng., 5(6): 5351-5359
  9. Wang, Z., Wang, L., Jiang, Y., Hunger, M. (2014). Cooperativity of Brønsted and Lewis Acid Sites on Zeolite for Glycerol Dehydration. ACS Catal., 4: 1144-1147
  10. Cubillas, P., Anderson, M.W., Strohmaier, K.G., Wright, P.A. (2011). Zeolites and Catalysis. Reactions, 50: 5425-5426
  11. Kandel, K., Anderegg, J.W., Nelson, N.C., Chaudhary, U. (2014). Supported Iron Nanoparticles for the Hydrodeoxygenation of Microalgal Oil to Green Diesel. J. Catal., 314: 142-148
  12. Zhou, H., Zhu, W., Shi, L., Liu, H. (2015). Promotion Effect of Fe in Mordenite Zeolite on Carbonylation of Dimethyl Ether to Methyl Acetate. Catal. Sci. Technol., 5: 1961-1968
  13. Calsavara, V., Luciano, M. (2008). Transformation of Ethanol into Hydrocarbons on ZSM-5 Zeolites Modified with Iron in Different Ways. Fuel. 87: 1628-1636
  14. Sriningsih, W., Saerodji, M.G., Trisunaryanti, W., Armunanto, R. (2014). Fuel Production from LDPE Plastic Waste over Natural Zeolite Supported Ni, Ni-Mo, Co, and Co-Mo Metals. Procedia Environ. Sci., 20: 215-224
  15. Nasser, G.A., Kurniawan, T., Tago, T, Bakare, I.A. (2015). Cracking of n-hexane over hierarchical MOR zeolites derived from natural minerals. J. Taiwan Inst. Chem. Eng. 61: 20-25
  16. Syamsiro, M., Saptoadi, H., Norsujianto, T., Noviasri, P. (2014). Fuel oil production from municipal plastic wastes in sequential pyrolysis and catalytic reforming reactors. Energy Procedia 47: 180-188
  17. Mudasir, M., Karelius, K., Aprilita, N.H., Wahyuni, E.T. (2016). Adsorption of mercury(II) on dithizone-immobilized natural zeolite. J. Environ. Chem. Eng. 4: 1839-1849
  18. Trisunaryanti, W., Syoufian, A., Purwono, S. (2013). Characterization and Modification of Indonesian Natural Zeolite for Hydrocracking of Waste Lubricant Oil into Liquid Fuel Fraction. J. Chem. Chem. Eng. 7: 175-180
  19. Trisunaryanti, W., Triwahyuni, E., Sudiono, S. (2005). Preparasi, Modifikasi dan Karakterisasi Katalis Ni-Mo/zeolit alam dan Mo-Ni/Zeolit alam. Teknoin, 10: 269-282
  20. Trisunaryanti, W., Triwahyuni, E., Sudiono, S. (2005). Preparation, Characterizations and Modification of Ni-Pd/Natural Zeolite Catalysts. Indo. J. Chem. 5: 48-53
  21. Trisunaryanti, W., Purwono, S., Putranto, A. (2008). Catalytic Hydrocracking of Waste Lubricant Oil into Liquid Fuel Fraction using ZnO, Nb2O5, Activated Natural Zeolite, and Their Modification. Indonesian Journal of Chemistry 8: 342-347
  22. Trisunaryanti, W, Rizki, C.N., Saptoadi, H., Syamsiro, M. (2013). Characteristics of Metal Supported-Zeolite Catalysts for Hydrocracking of Polyethylene Terephthalat. IOSR J. Appl. Chem. 3: 29-34
  23. Liu, J., He, J., Wang, L., Li, R. (2016). NiO-PTA Supported on ZIF-8 as a Highly Effective Catalyst for Hydrocracking of Jatropha Oil. Sci. Rep. 6: 23667
  24. Arean, C.O., Nachtigall, P., Thang, V., Bula, R. (2014). Measuring the Brønsted Acid Strength of Zeolites-Does It Correlate with the O–H Frequency Shift Probed by a Weak Base? Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 16: 10129-10141
  25. Sommer, J., Louis, B. (2004). Quantitative Determination of Brønsted Acid Sites on Zeolites: A New Approach towards the Chemical Composition of Zeolites. Catal. Letters. 93: 81-82
  26. Ko, Y.S., Jang, H.T., Ahn, W.S. (2008). Hydrothermal synthesis and characterization of Fe(III)-substituted mordenites. Korean J. Chem. Eng. 25: 1286-1291
  27. Deng, J., Liu, J., Song, W., Zhao, Z. (2017). Selective Catalytic Reduction of NO with NH3 over Mo-Fe/Beta Catalysts: The Effect of Mo Loading Amounts. RSC Adv. 7: 7130-7139
  28. Sazegar, M.R., Dadvand, A., Mahmoudi, A. (2017). Novel Protonated Fe-containing Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticle Catalyst: excellent performance cyclohexane oxidation. RSC Adv. 7: 27506-27514
  29. Mat, R., Amin, N.A.S. (2015). Fe/HY Zeolite as an Effective Catalyst for Levulinic Acid Production from Glucose: Characterization and Catalytic Performance. Appl. Catal. B Environ. 163: 487-498
  30. Kragović, M., Daković, A., Marković, M., Krstić, J. (2013). Characterization of Lead Sorption by the Natural and Fe(III)-modified Zeolite. Appl. Surf. Sci. 283: 764-774
  31. Rostamizadeh, M, Yaripour, F. (2016). Bifunctional and bimetallic Fe/ZSM-5 nanocatalysts for methanol to olefin reaction. Fuel 181: 537-546
  32. Zhou, L., Lawal, A. (2016). Hydrodeoxygenation of Microalgae Oil to Green Diesel over Pt, Rh and Presulfided NiMo Catalysts. Catal. Sci. Technol. 6: 1442-1454
  33. Huang, H.J., Yuan, X.Z., Zeng, G.M., Liu, Y. (2013). Thermochemical liquefaction of rice husk for bio-oil production with sub-and supercritical ethanol as solvent. J. Anal. Appl. Pyrolysis. 102: 60-67
  34. Zhao, X., Wei, L., Cheng, S., Huang, Y. (2015). Catalytic cracking of camelina oil for hydrocarbon biofuel over ZSM-5-Zn catalyst. Fuel Process. Technol. 139: 117-126
  35. Deliy, I.V., Vlasova, E.N., Nuzhdin, A.L., Gerasimov, E.Y. (2014). Hydrodeoxygenation of Methyl Palmitate over Sulfided Mo/Al2O3, CoMo/Al2O3 and NiMo/Al2O3 Catalysts. RSC Adv. 4: 2242-2250
  36. Xin, H., Guo, K., Li, D., Yang, H. (2016). Production of high-grade diesel from palmitic acid over activated carbon-supported nickel phosphide catalysts. Appl. Catal. B Environ. 187: 375-385
  37. Zhao, X., Wei, L., Cheng, S., Julson, J. (2017). Review of Heterogeneous Catalysts for Catalytically Upgrading Vegetable Oils into Hydrocarbon Biofuels. Catalysts. 7: 83
  38. Hong, Y., Wang, Y. (2017). Elucidation of reaction mechanism for m-cresol hydrodeoxygenation over Fe based catalysts: A kinetic study. Catal. Commun. 100: 43-47
  39. Duan, J., Han, J., Sun, H., Chen, P. (2012). Diesel-like Hydrocarbons Obtained by Direct Hydrodeoxygenation of Sunflower Oil over Pd/Al-SBA-15 Catalysts. Catal. Commun. 17: 76-80
  40. da Mota, S.D.P., Mancio, A.A., Lhamas, D.E.L., de Abreu, D.H. (2014). Production of Green Diesel by Thermal Catalytic Cracking of Crude Palm oil (Elaeis guineensis Jacq) in a Pilot Plant. J. Anal. Appl. Pyrolysis. 110: 1-11
  41. Huber, G.W., O’Connor, P., Corma, A. (2007). Processing Biomass in Conventional Oil Refineries: Production of High Quality Diesel by Hydrotreating Vegetable Oils in Heavy Vacuum Oil Mixtures. Appl. Catal. A Gen. 329: 120-129

Last update:

No citation recorded.

Last update:

No citation recorded.