Fe/Indonesian Natural Zeolite as Hydrodeoxygenation Catalyst in Green Diesel Production from Palm Oil
Copyright (c) 2018 Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
Article Metrics: (Click on the Metric tab below to see the detail)
The Petroleum diesel-based fossil fuel remains the primary source of energy consumption in Indonesia. The utilization of this unrenewable fuel depletes fossil fuels; thus, an alternative, renewable fuel, such as one based on biohydrocarbon from biomass-green diesel-could be an option. In this work, green diesel was produced through the hydrodeoxygenation from palm oil and processed in a batch-stirred autoclave reactor over natural zeolite (NZ) and NZ modified with 3 wt.% Fe metal (Fe/NZ) as heterogeneous catalyst. NZ showed high crystallinity and suitability to the simulated pattern of the mordenite and clinoptilolite phases according to X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. The presence of Fe metal was further confirmed by XRD, with an additional small diffraction peak of Fe0 that appeared at 2θ = 44-45°. Meanwhile, NZ and Fe/NZ were also characterized by Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX), X-ray Fluorescence (XRF), and Surface Area Analyzer (SAA). The obtained materials were tested for the conversion of palm oil into diesel-range hydrocarbons (C15-C18) under conditions of 375 °C and 12 bar H2 for 2 h. NZ and Fe/NZ produced a liquid hydrocarbon with straight-chain (C15-C18) alkanes as the most abundant products. Based on Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) measurement, a higher conversion of palm oil into diesel-like hydrocarbons reached more than 58% and 89%, when NZ and Fe modified NZ (Fe/NZ), respectively were used as catalysts. Copyright © 2018 BCREC Group. All rights reserved
Received: 24th July 2017; Revised: 10th November 2017; Accepted: 15th November 2017; Available online: 11st June 2018; Published regularly: 1st August 2018
How to Cite: Putra, R., Lestari, W.W., Wibowo, F.R., Susanto, B.H. (2018). Fe/Indonesian Natural Zeolite as Hydrodeoxygenation Catalyst in Green Diesel Production from Palm Oil. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 13 (2): 245-255 (doi:10.9767/bcrec.13.2.1382.245-255)
- Orozco, L.M., Echeverri, D.A., Sánchez, L., Rios, L.A. (2017). Second-generation Green Diesel from Castor Oil: Development of a New and Efficient Continuous-production Process. Chem. Eng. J., 322: 149-156.
- Kusuma, R.I., Hadinoto, J.P., Ayucitra, A., Soetaredjo, F.E. (2013). Natural Zeolite from Pacitan Indonesia, as Catalyst Support for Transesterification of Palm Oil. Appl. Clay Sci., 74: 121-126.
- Wang, Q., Gupta, N., Wen, G., Bee, S. (2017). Palladium and Carbon Synergistically Catalyzed Room-temperature Hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) of Vanillyl Alcohol-A Typical Lignin Model Molecule. J. Energy Chem., 26: 8-16.
- de Sousa, F.P., Cardoso, C.C., Pasa, V.M.D. (2016). Producing Hydrocarbons for Green Diesel and Jet Fuel Formulation from Palm Kernel Fat over Pd/C. Fuel Process. Technol., 143: 35-42.
- Veriansyah, B., Han, J.Y., Kim, S.K., Hong, S.A. (2012). Production of Renewable Diesel by Hydroprocessing of Soybean Oil: Effect of Catalysts. Fuel 94: 578-585.
- Kaewmeesri, R., Srifa, A., Itthibenchapong, V., Faungnawakij, K. (2015). Deoxygenation of Waste Chicken Fats to Green Diesel over Ni/Al2O3: Effect of Water and Free Fatty Acid Content. Energ. Fuel. 29: 833-840.
- Susanto, B.H., Nasikin, M., Wiyo, A. (2014). Synthesis of Renewable Diesel through Hydrodeoxygenation Using Pd/Zeolite Catalysts. Procedia Chem., 9: 139-150.
- Soni, V.K., Sharma, P.R., Choudhary, G., Pandey, S., Sharma, R.K. (2017). Ni/Co-Natural Clay as Green Catalysts for Microalgae Oil to Diesel-Grade Hydrocarbons Conversion. ACS Sustain. Chem. Eng., 5(6): 5351-5359.
- Wang, Z., Wang, L., Jiang, Y., Hunger, M. (2014). Cooperativity of Brønsted and Lewis Acid Sites on Zeolite for Glycerol Dehydration. ACS Catal., 4: 1144-1147.
- Cubillas, P., Anderson, M.W., Strohmaier, K.G., Wright, P.A. (2011). Zeolites and Catalysis. Reactions, 50: 5425-5426.
- Kandel, K., Anderegg, J.W., Nelson, N.C., Chaudhary, U. (2014). Supported Iron Nanoparticles for the Hydrodeoxygenation of Microalgal Oil to Green Diesel. J. Catal., 314: 142-148.
- Zhou, H., Zhu, W., Shi, L., Liu, H. (2015). Promotion Effect of Fe in Mordenite Zeolite on Carbonylation of Dimethyl Ether to Methyl Acetate. Catal. Sci. Technol., 5: 1961-1968.
- Calsavara, V., Luciano, M. (2008). Transformation of Ethanol into Hydrocarbons on ZSM-5 Zeolites Modified with Iron in Different Ways. Fuel. 87: 1628-1636.
- Sriningsih, W., Saerodji, M.G., Trisunaryanti, W., Armunanto, R. (2014). Fuel Production from LDPE Plastic Waste over Natural Zeolite Supported Ni, Ni-Mo, Co, and Co-Mo Metals. Procedia Environ. Sci., 20: 215-224.
- Nasser, G.A., Kurniawan, T., Tago, T, Bakare, I.A. (2015). Cracking of n-hexane over hierarchical MOR zeolites derived from natural minerals. J. Taiwan Inst. Chem. Eng. 61: 20-25.
- Syamsiro, M., Saptoadi, H., Norsujianto, T., Noviasri, P. (2014). Fuel oil production from municipal plastic wastes in sequential pyrolysis and catalytic reforming reactors. Energy Procedia 47: 180-188.
- Mudasir, M., Karelius, K., Aprilita, N.H., Wahyuni, E.T. (2016). Adsorption of mercury(II) on dithizone-immobilized natural zeolite. J. Environ. Chem. Eng. 4: 1839-1849.
- Trisunaryanti, W., Syoufian, A., Purwono, S. (2013). Characterization and Modification of Indonesian Natural Zeolite for Hydrocracking of Waste Lubricant Oil into Liquid Fuel Fraction. J. Chem. Chem. Eng. 7: 175-180.
- Trisunaryanti, W., Triwahyuni, E., Sudiono, S. (2005). Preparasi, Modifikasi dan Karakterisasi Katalis Ni-Mo/zeolit alam dan Mo-Ni/Zeolit alam. Teknoin, 10: 269-282.
- Trisunaryanti, W., Triwahyuni, E., Sudiono, S. (2005). Preparation, Characterizations and Modification of Ni-Pd/Natural Zeolite Catalysts. Indo. J. Chem. 5: 48-53.
- Trisunaryanti, W., Purwono, S., Putranto, A. (2008). Catalytic Hydrocracking of Waste Lubricant Oil into Liquid Fuel Fraction using ZnO, Nb2O5, Activated Natural Zeolite, and Their Modification. Indonesian Journal of Chemistry 8: 342-347.
- Trisunaryanti, W, Rizki, C.N., Saptoadi, H., Syamsiro, M. (2013). Characteristics of Metal Supported-Zeolite Catalysts for Hydrocracking of Polyethylene Terephthalat. IOSR J. Appl. Chem. 3: 29-34.
- Liu, J., He, J., Wang, L., Li, R. (2016). NiO-PTA Supported on ZIF-8 as a Highly Effective Catalyst for Hydrocracking of Jatropha Oil. Sci. Rep. 6: 23667.
- Arean, C.O., Nachtigall, P., Thang, V., Bula, R. (2014). Measuring the Brønsted Acid Strength of Zeolites-Does It Correlate with the O–H Frequency Shift Probed by a Weak Base? Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 16: 10129-10141.
- Sommer, J., Louis, B. (2004). Quantitative Determination of Brønsted Acid Sites on Zeolites: A New Approach towards the Chemical Composition of Zeolites. Catal. Letters. 93: 81-82.
- Ko, Y.S., Jang, H.T., Ahn, W.S. (2008). Hydrothermal synthesis and characterization of Fe(III)-substituted mordenites. Korean J. Chem. Eng. 25: 1286-1291.
- Deng, J., Liu, J., Song, W., Zhao, Z. (2017). Selective Catalytic Reduction of NO with NH3 over Mo-Fe/Beta Catalysts: The Effect of Mo Loading Amounts. RSC Adv. 7: 7130-7139.
- Sazegar, M.R., Dadvand, A., Mahmoudi, A. (2017). Novel Protonated Fe-containing Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticle Catalyst: excellent performance cyclohexane oxidation. RSC Adv. 7: 27506-27514.
- Mat, R., Amin, N.A.S. (2015). Fe/HY Zeolite as an Effective Catalyst for Levulinic Acid Production from Glucose: Characterization and Catalytic Performance. Appl. Catal. B Environ. 163: 487-498.
- Kragović, M., Daković, A., Marković, M., Krstić, J. (2013). Characterization of Lead Sorption by the Natural and Fe(III)-modified Zeolite. Appl. Surf. Sci. 283: 764-774.
- Rostamizadeh, M, Yaripour, F. (2016). Bifunctional and bimetallic Fe/ZSM-5 nanocatalysts for methanol to olefin reaction. Fuel 181: 537-546.
- Zhou, L., Lawal, A. (2016). Hydrodeoxygenation of Microalgae Oil to Green Diesel over Pt, Rh and Presulfided NiMo Catalysts. Catal. Sci. Technol. 6: 1442-1454.
- Huang, H.J., Yuan, X.Z., Zeng, G.M., Liu, Y. (2013). Thermochemical liquefaction of rice husk for bio-oil production with sub-and supercritical ethanol as solvent. J. Anal. Appl. Pyrolysis. 102: 60-67.
- Zhao, X., Wei, L., Cheng, S., Huang, Y. (2015). Catalytic cracking of camelina oil for hydrocarbon biofuel over ZSM-5-Zn catalyst. Fuel Process. Technol. 139: 117-126.
- Deliy, I.V., Vlasova, E.N., Nuzhdin, A.L., Gerasimov, E.Y. (2014). Hydrodeoxygenation of Methyl Palmitate over Sulfided Mo/Al2O3, CoMo/Al2O3 and NiMo/Al2O3 Catalysts. RSC Adv. 4: 2242-2250.
- Xin, H., Guo, K., Li, D., Yang, H. (2016). Production of high-grade diesel from palmitic acid over activated carbon-supported nickel phosphide catalysts. Appl. Catal. B Environ. 187: 375-385.
- Zhao, X., Wei, L., Cheng, S., Julson, J. (2017). Review of Heterogeneous Catalysts for Catalytically Upgrading Vegetable Oils into Hydrocarbon Biofuels. Catalysts. 7: 83.
- Hong, Y., Wang, Y. (2017). Elucidation of reaction mechanism for m-cresol hydrodeoxygenation over Fe based catalysts: A kinetic study. Catal. Commun. 100: 43-47.
- Duan, J., Han, J., Sun, H., Chen, P. (2012). Diesel-like Hydrocarbons Obtained by Direct Hydrodeoxygenation of Sunflower Oil over Pd/Al-SBA-15 Catalysts. Catal. Commun. 17: 76-80.
- da Mota, S.D.P., Mancio, A.A., Lhamas, D.E.L., de Abreu, D.H. (2014). Production of Green Diesel by Thermal Catalytic Cracking of Crude Palm oil (Elaeis guineensis Jacq) in a Pilot Plant. J. Anal. Appl. Pyrolysis. 110: 1-11.
- Huber, G.W., O’Connor, P., Corma, A. (2007). Processing Biomass in Conventional Oil Refineries: Production of High Quality Diesel by Hydrotreating Vegetable Oils in Heavy Vacuum Oil Mixtures. Appl. Catal. A Gen. 329: 120-129.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
Authors and readers can copy and redistribute the material in any medium or format, as well as remix, transform, and build upon the material for any purpose, even commercially, but they must give appropriate credit (cite to the article or content), provide a link to the license, and indicate if changes were made. If you remix, transform, or build upon the material, you must distribute your contributions under the same license as the original.
Copyright Transfer Agreement
The Authors submitting a manuscript do so on the understanding that if accepted for publication, copyright of the article shall be assigned to Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis journal and Department of Chemical Engineering Diponegoro University as publisher of the journal.
Copyright encompasses exclusive rights to reproduce and deliver the article in all form and media, including reprints, photographs, microfilms and any other similar reproductions, as well as translations. The reproduction of any part of this journal, its storage in databases and its transmission by any form or media, such as electronic, electrostatic and mechanical copies, photocopies, recordings, magnetic media, etc., will be allowed only with a written permission from Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis journal and Department of Chemical Engineering Diponegoro University.
Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis journal and Department of Chemical Engineering Diponegoro University, the Editors and the Advisory International Editorial Board make every effort to ensure that no wrong or misleading data, opinions or statements be published in the journal. In any way, the contents of the articles and advertisements published in the Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis are sole and exclusive responsibility of their respective authors and advertisers.
The Copyright Transfer Form can be downloaded here: [Copyright Transfer Form BCREC 2016]
The copyright form should be signed originally and send to the Editorial Office in the form of original mail, scanned document or fax :
Prof. Dr. I. Istadi (Editor-in-Chief)
Editorial Office of Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering and Catalysis
Department of Chemical Engineering, Diponegoro University
Jl. Prof. Soedarto, Kampus Undip Tembalang, Semarang, Central Java, Indonesia 50275
Telp.: +62-24-7460058, Fax.: +62-24-76480675