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Effect of Physicochemical Properties of Co and Mo Modified Natural Sourced Hierarchical ZSM-5 Zeolite Catalysts on Vanillin and Phenol Production from Diphenyl Ether

1Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Science, Universitas Indonesia, Depok, Indonesia

2Solid Inorganic Framework Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Science, Universitas Indonesia, Depok, Indonesia

Received: 7 Jan 2022; Revised: 19 Feb 2022; Accepted: 20 Feb 2022; Available online: 21 Feb 2022; Published: 30 Mar 2022.
Editor(s): Istadi Istadi
Open Access Copyright (c) 2022 by Authors, Published by BCREC Group
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

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The conversion of lignocellulose biomass to value-added chemicals is challenging. In this paper, the conversion process of diphenyl ether (DPE) as a model lignin compound to phenol and vanillin compounds involved a bifunctional catalyst in reaching the simultaneous one-pot reaction in mild conditions with a high yield product. The catalysts used in this conversion are hierarchical ZSM-5 zeolites and their cobalt oxide and molybdenum oxide impregnated derivate. The ZSM-5 zeolites were synthesized using alternative precursors from natural resources, i.e., Indonesian natural zeolite and kaolin. The physicochemical properties of the catalysts were determined with various characterization methods, such as: X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infra Red (FT-IR), Scanning Electron Microscope - Energy Dispersive X-ray (SEM-EDX), X-ray Fluorescence (XRF), Surface Area Analyzer (SAA), and NH3-Temperature Programmed Desorption (NH3-TPD). The catalytic activity on conversion of DPE substrates showed that the MoOx/HZSM-5 produced the highest %yield for phenol and vanillin products; 31.96% at 250 °C and 7.63% at 200 °C, respectively. The correlation study between the physicochemical properties and the catalytic activity shows that the dominance of weak acid (>40%) and mesoporosity contribution (pore size of ~ 9 nm) play roles in giving the best catalytic activity at low temperatures. Copyright © 2022 by Authors, Published by BCREC Group. This is an open access article under the CC BY-SA License (


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Keywords: Diphenyl ether; metal oxide/ZSM-5; Vanillin and Phenol production; catalytic conversion; natural sourced ZSM-5
Funding: Kemenristek/BRIN - Hibah PTUPT (Penelitian Terapan Unggulan Perguruan Tinggi) under contract contract number: NKB-269/UN2.RST/HKP.05.00/2021

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