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Sodium Silicate Catalyst for Synthesis Monoacylglycerol and Diacylglycerol-Rich Structured Lipids: Product Characteristic and Glycerolysis–Interesterification Kinetics

1Department of Food and Agricultural Product Technology, Faculty of Agricultural Technology, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Jl. Flora No 1 Bulaksumur, Yogyakarta, Indonesia

2Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Jl. Grafika No 2 Yogyakarta, Indonesia

Received: 30 Dec 2021; Revised: 22 Feb 2022; Accepted: 23 Feb 2022; Available online: 2 Mar 2022; Published: 30 Jun 2022.
Editor(s): Istadi Istadi
Open Access Copyright (c) 2022 by Authors, Published by BCREC Group
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

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Abstract

Sodium silicate as heterogeneous base catalysts is more environmentally friendly and easily separated by filtration. The objective of this research was to evaluate the activated sodium silicate as catalyst for synthesis of monoacylglycerol (MAG) and diacylglycerol (DAG)-rich structured lipids (SLs) from a palm olein-stearin blend. Sodium silicate was activated and functional group was characterized. Reaction was performed using 5% catalyst (w/w) at various reaction temperature (70–120 °C) for 3 h in a batch stirred tank reactor. Physical properties of SLs, such as melting point, slip melting point, and hardness of SLs were determined. Reaction kinetics were also evaluated. The results show that Si−O bending was reduced and shifted to a Si−O−Na and Si−O−Si functional groups after sodium silicate activation. Temperature had a significant effect on SLs composition at higher than 90 °C. An increase in temperature produced more MAG, resulting in better product physical properties. The best reaction condition was at 110 °C. Rate constants and the Arrhenius equation were also obtained for each reaction step. In summary, the activated sodium silicate catalyzed glycerolysis-interesterification reaction, which produced MAG and DAG at temperature higher than 90 °C. Therefore, the physical properties of SLs were improved. Copyright © 2022 by Authors, Published by BCREC Group. This is an open access article under the CC BY-SA License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0).

 

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Keywords: Glycerolysis-Interesterification; Structured Lipids; Monoacylglycerol and Diacylglycerol; Heterogeneous Base Catalyst; Reaction Kinetics
Funding: Ministry of Research and Technology/National Research and Innovation Agency of Republic Indonesia (RISTEK-BRIN) under contract PMDSU Batch III Contract Number: 2972/UN1.DITLIT/DIT-LIT/LT/2019

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