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Selective Hydrogenation of Stearic Acid to 1-Octadecanol Using Bimetallic Palladium-Tin Supported on Carbon Catalysts at Mild Reaction Conditions

1Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Lambung Mangkurat University, Jl. A. Yani Km 36.0 Banjarbaru South Kalimantan, Indonesia

2Catalysis for Sustainable Energy and Environment (CATSuRe), Lambung Mangkurat University, Indonesia

3Department of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Lambung Mangkurat University, Jl. A. Yani Km 36 Banjarbaru, Indonesia

4 Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Lambung Mangkurat University, Jl. A. Yani Km 36 Banjarbaru, Indonesia

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Received: 29 Jul 2021; Revised: 19 Sep 2021; Accepted: 19 Sep 2021; Available online: 20 Sep 2021; Published: 20 Dec 2021.
Editor(s): Istadi Istadi
Open Access Copyright (c) 2021 by Authors, Published by BCREC Group
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

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Abstract

Bimetallic palladium-tin catalysts supported on microporous carbon (denoted as Pd-Sn(x)/C, loading amount of Pd = 5 wt% and x = Pd/Sn molar ratio; c.a. 3.0; 1.5; and 1.0) showed high selectivity in the hydrogenation of stearic acid towards 1-octadecanol (stearyl alcohol) under mild reaction conditions. Pd-Sn(x)/C catalysts were synthesized via the hydrothermal method at temperature of 150 °C for 24 h, and reduced with H2 at 400 °C for 3 h. Pd-Sn(1.5)/C catalyst exhibited the highest yield of stearyl alcohol (1-octadecanol) (up to 73.2%) at 100% conversion of stearic acid at temperature 240 °C, initial H2 pressure of 3.0 MPa, a reaction time of 13 h, and in 2-propanol/water solvent. The high selectivity of alcohols over Pd-Sn(1.5)/C catalyst can be attributed to the formation of bimetallic Pd-Sn alloy phases (e.g. Pd3Sn and Pd3Sn2) as obviously depicted by XRD analysis. The presence of co-promotor Sn and the formation of bimetallic may play a pivotal role in the high selectivity of 1-octadecanol. Copyright © 2021 by Authors, Published by BCREC Group. This is an open access article under the CC BY-SA License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0).

 

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Keywords: hydrogenation; stearic acid; 1-octadecanol; bimetallic Pd-Sn catalyst
Funding: BPDP Kelapa Sawit (PRJ - 49 /DPKS/2016); Ministry of Education, Culture, Research & Technology (DIPA-042.06-1.401516/2020)

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