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ZnO-Activated Carbon Blended as a Catalyst for Oxidative Desulfurization of Dibenzothiophene

1Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Gadjah Mada University, Indonesia

2Department of Chemistry Education, Faculty of Teacher Training and Education, Sebelas Maret University, Indonesia

3Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Sepuluh Nopember Institute of Technology, Indonesia

Received: 22 Jul 2021; Revised: 17 Sep 2021; Accepted: 17 Sep 2021; Available online: 20 Sep 2021; Published: 20 Dec 2021.
Editor(s): Istadi Istadi
Open Access Copyright (c) 2021 by Authors, Published by BCREC Group
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

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The problem of sulfur content in heavy oil is a challenge for researchers to meet the needs of environmentally friendly fuels. The catalyst preparation plays an important role in the desulfurization process. The synthesis of ZnO-activated carbon as a catalyst and its activity in oxidative desulfurization (ODS) reaction has been successfully carried out. In this work, the ZnO and activated carbon (AC) were blended by a solid-solid reaction. The ZnO, AC, and ZnO-AC were then characterized using acidity test with pyridine vapor adsorption, Fourier Transform Infra-Red (FTIR), X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscope-Energy Dispersive X-Ray (SEM-EDX), and Surface Area Analyzer (SAA). ODS of dibenzothiophene (DBT) reaction was performed by using H2O2 under variation of the reaction time (30, 60, 120, and 150 min) for the ZnO-AC catalyst. The efficiency of ODS-DBT was analyzed by a UV-Visible spectrophotometer. The XRD analysis result showed that ZnO-AC blended displays new crystal peaks of Zn in the AC diffractogram. The surface area (734.351 m2/g) and acidity (4.8780 mmol/g) of ZnO-AC were higher than ZnO and AC themselves. ZnO-AC produced the highest efficiency of ODS-DBT which was 93.83% in the reaction time of 120 min. Therefore, the simple procedure of this physical blending was proved effective to homogenize between ZnO and AC into ZnO-AC so that it has good physicochemical properties as an ODS-DBT catalyst. Copyright © 2021 by Authors, Published by BCREC Group. This is an open access article under the CC BY-SA License (


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Keywords: Oxidative Desulfurization; Dibenzothiophene; ZnO-Activated Carbon Blended
Funding: The Research Program for the Indonesia Collaboration (Program Penelitian Kolaborasi Indonesia) 2020 under contract contract number of 514/UN27.21/HK/2020

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