skip to main content

Effect of CTAB Ratio to the Characters of Mesoporous Silica Prepared from Rice Husk Ash in the Pyrolysis of a–cellulose

1Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Computer Science, Pertamina University, Teuku Nyak Arief, Simprug, Kebayoran Lama, Jakarta 12220, Indonesia

2Forest Products Research and Development Center, The Ministry of Environment and Forestry, Bogor, 16610, Indonesia

3Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Science, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, 55281, Indonesia

4 Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Riau, Pekanbaru, Indonesia

5 Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Science, Sepuluh November Institute of Technology, Surabaya, 60111, Indonesia

View all affiliations
Received: 14 Apr 2021; Revised: 30 Jun 2021; Accepted: 1 Jul 2021; Published: 30 Sep 2021; Available online: 5 Jul 2021.
Open Access Copyright (c) 2021 by Authors, Published by BCREC Group
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Citation Format:
Cover Image

Due to its wide application, synthesizing silica through a cost-effective process becomes an attractive subject to be studied today. In this work, mesoporous silica (MS) was prepared from the highly available agricultural waste, rice husk ash (RHA), to be used as catalyst in the pyrolysis of a-cellulose. Silica was extracted from RHA through a reflux process in a strong base solution and arranged into a mesoporous structure by using cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB). To find a condition that produces a mesoporous support with the highest surface area and catalytic activity, the mole ratios of CTAB:SiO2 used during the preparation of MS were varied; 0.05:1; 0.1:1; 0.2:1. Afterwards, all prepared MS were characterized using Fourier Transform Infra Red (FTIR), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), and Surface Area Analyzer (SAA). Through he surface area analysis, it was found that MS materials possessed surface area, pore diameter, and pore volume that range from 600–970 m2.g1, 3.5–4.7 nm, 0.7–1 cm3.g1, respectively. The highest surface area, with over 970.80 m2.g1, was obtained in MS support prepared by using CTAB:SiO2 mole ratio of 0.1:1. SEM images showed a coral reef-like surface morphology for all MS. In the pyrolysis of a-cellulose evaluated by Py-GCMS, aside from producing biofuel compounds, the use of MS was able to generate two-fold furan production, which is considered as a valuable compound in many chemical syntheses. This result highlights the potential of MS prepared from RHA to be used as a catalysis support material that is more economical for biofuel and other chemical production. Copyright © 2021 by Authors, Published by BCREC Group. This is an open access article under the CC BY-SA License (


Fulltext View|Download
Keywords: a–cellulose; mesoporous silica; pyrolysis; rice husk; CTAB
Funding: Ministry of Research and Technology of Republic Indonesia under contract Konsorsium Riset Perguruan Tinggi 198/SP2H/LT/DRPM/2021

Article Metrics:

Article Info
Section: Original Research Articles
Language : EN
  1. Kaewpengkrow, P., Atong, D., Sricharoenchaikul, V. (2017). Selective catalytic fast pyrolysis of Jatropha curcas residue with metal oxide impregnated activated carbon for upgrading bio-oil. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 42(29), 18397–18409. DOI: 10.1016/j.ijhydene.2017.04.167
  2. Mckendry, P. (2002). Energy production from biomass (part 1): overview of biomass. Bioresource Technology, 83, 37–46. DOI: 10.1016/S0960-8524(01)00118-3
  3. Bartoli, M., Rosi, L., Giovannelli, A., Frediani, P., Frediani, M. (2016). Pyrolysis of α-cellulose using a multimode microwave oven. Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis, 120, 284–296. DOI: 10.1016/j.jaap.2016.05.016
  4. Santi, D., Triyono, T., Trisunaryanti, W., Izul Falah, I. (2020). Hydrocracking of pyrolyzed α-cellulose to hydrocarbon over MxOy/Mesoporous carbon catalyst (M = Co and Mo): Synthesis and characterization of carbon-based catalyst support from saw waste of Merbau wood. Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering, 8(3), 103735. DOI: 10.1016/j.jece.2020.103735
  5. Lyu, G., Wu, S., Zhang, H. (2015). Estimation and comparison of bio-oil components from different pyrolysis conditions. Frontiers in Energy Research, 3, 28. DOI: 10.3389/fenrg.2015.00028
  6. Chi, Y., Xue, J., Zhuo, J., Zhang, D., Liu, M., Yao, Q. (2018). Science of the Total Environment Catalytic co-pyrolysis of cellulose and polypropylene over all-silica mesoporous catalyst MCM-41 and Al-MCM-41. Science of the Total Environment, 633, 1105–1113. DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2018.03.239
  7. Dhaneswara, D., Fatriansyah, J.F., Situmorang, F.W., Haqoh, A.N. (2020). Synthesis of Amorphous Silica from Rice Husk Ash: Comparing HCl and CH3COOH Acidification Methods and Various Alkaline Concentrations. International Journal of Technology, 11(1) 200–208. DOI: 10.14716/ijtech.v11i1.3335
  8. Bakar, R.A., Yahya, R., Gan, S.N. (2016). Production of High Purity Amorphous Silica from Rice Husk. Procedia Chemistry, 19, 189–195. DOI: 10.1016/j.proche.2016.03.092
  9. Hossain, S.K.S., Mathur, L., Roy, P.K. (2018). Rice husk/rice husk ash as an alternative source of silica in ceramics: A review. Journal of Asian Ceramic Societies, 6, 299–313. DOI: 10.1080/21870764.2018.1539210
  10. Suyanta, A., Kuncaka, K. (2011). Utilization of rice husk as raw material in synthesis of mesoporous silicates MCM-41. Indonesian Journal of Chemistry, 11, 279–284. DOI: 10.22146/ijc.21393
  11. Trisunaryanti, W., Falah, I.I., Marsuki, M.F. (2017). Synthesis of Mesoporous Silica-Alumina from Lapindo Mud Using Gelatin from Catfish Bone as a Template : Effect of Extracting Temperature on Yield and Characteristic of Gelatin as well as Mesoporous Silica-Alumina. In 15th International Conference on Environmental Science and Technology. CEST2017_00741. Rhodes, Greece
  12. Alothman, Z.A. (2012). A review: Fundamental aspects of silicate mesoporous materials. Materials, 5(12), 2874–2902. DOI: 10.3390/ma5122874
  13. Majchrzak-Kucȩba, I., Nowak, W. (2011). Characterization of MCM-41 mesoporous materials derived from polish fly ashes. International Journal of Mineral Processing, 101(1–4), 100–111. DOI: 10.1016/j.minpro.2011.09.002
  14. Aboelenin, R.M.M., Fathy, N.A., Farag, H.K., Sherief, M.A. (2017). Preparation, characterization and catalytic performance of mesoporous silicates derived from natural diatomite: Comparative studies. Journal of Water Process Engineering, 19, 112–119. DOI: 10.1016/j.jwpe.2017.07.017
  15. Vazquez, N.I., Gonzalez, Z., Ferrari, B., Castro, Y. (2017). Synthesis of mesoporous silica nanoparticles by sol-gel as nanocontainer for future drug delivery applications. Boletín de la Sociedad Española de Cerámica y Vidrio, 56, 139–145. DOI: 10.1016/j.bsecv.2017.03.002
  16. Yang, G., Deng, Y., Ding, H., Lin, Z., Shao, Y., Wang, Y. (2015). A facile approach to synthesize MCM-41 mesoporous materials from iron ore tailing: Influence of the synthesis conditions on the structural properties. Applied Clay Science, 111, 61–66. DOI: 10.1016/j.clay.2015.04.005
  17. Trisunaryanti, W., Armunanto, R., Hastuti, L.P., Ristiana, D.D., Ginting, R.V. (2018). Hydrocracking of α-Cellulose Using Co, Ni, and Pd Supported on Mordenite Catalysts. Indonesian Journal of Chemistry, 18(1), 166–172. DOI: 10.22146/ijc.26491
  18. Purwaningsih, H., Ervianto, Y., Pratiwi, V. M., Susanti, D., Purniawan, A. (2019). Effect of Cetyl Trimethyl Ammonium Bromide as Template of Mesoporous Silica MCM-41 from Rice Husk by Sol-Gel Method. IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, 515, 012051. DOI: 10.1088/1757-899X/515/1/012051
  19. Campbell, R.A., Parker, S.R.W., Day, J.P.R., Bain, C.D. (2004). External reflection FTIR spectroscopy of the cationic surfactant hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) on an overflowing cylinder. Langmuir, 20, 8740–8753. DOI: 10.1021/la048680x
  20. Arunmetha, S., Karthik, A., Srither, R., Vinoth, M., Suriyaprabha, R., Manivasakan, P., Rajendran, V. (2015). Size-dependent physicochemical properties of mesoporous nanosilica produced from natural quartz sand using three different methods. RSC Advances, 5(59), 47390–47397. DOI: 10.1039/b000000x
  21. Xue, J., Zhuo, J., Liu, M., Chi, Y., Zhang, D., Yao, Q. (2017). Synergetic effect of co-pyrolysis of cellulose and PP over an all- silica mesoporous catalyst MCM-41 using TG-FTIR and Py-GC-MS. Energy & Fuels, 31(9), 9576–9584. DOI: 10.1021/acs.energyfuels.7b01651
  22. Shi, Y., Liu, C., Zhuo, J., Yao, Q. (2020). Investigation of a Ni-Modified MCM-41 Catalyst for the Reduction of Oxygenates and Carbon Deposits during the Co-Pyrolysis of Cellulose and Polypropylene. ACS Omega, 5, 20299–20310. DOI: 10.1021/acsomega.0c02205
  23. Sarmah, B., Satpati, B., Srivastava, R. (2018). Selective oxidation of biomass-derived alcohols and aromatic and aliphatic alcohols to aldehydes with O2/air using a RuO2‑supported Mn3O4 catalyst, ACS Omega, 3, 7944−7954. DOI: 10.1021/acsomega.8b01009
  24. Lalanne, L., Nyanhongo, G.S., Guebitz, G.M., Pellis, A. (2021). Biotechnological production and high potential of furan-based renewable monomers and polymers. Biotechnology Advances, 48, 107707. DOI: 10.1016/j.biotechadv.2021.107707
  25. Mohajer, F., Ziarani, G.M., Badiei, A., Ghasemi, J.B. (2021). SBA-Pr-Imine-Furan as an environmental adsorbent of Pd(II)in aqueous solutions. Environmental Challenges, 3, 100032. DOI: 10.1016/j.envc.2021.100032

Last update:

No citation recorded.

Last update:

No citation recorded.