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Statistical Optimisation using Taguchi Method for Transesterification of Reutealis Trisperma Oil to Biodiesel on CaO-ZnO Catalysts

1Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember, Surabaya, 60111, Indonesia

2Department of Statistic, Faculty of Science and Analytical Data, Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember, Surabaya, Indonesia

3Center for Advanced Material and Energy Sciences, Universiti Brunei Darussalam, Jl. Tungku link, BE1410, Brunei Darussalam

4 PT Agrindo, Raya Driyorejo Km. 19, Gresik, East Java, Indonesia

5 Laboratory of Energy, Center for Energy Studies, Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember, Surabaya, Indonesia

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Received: 19 Mar 2021; Revised: 18 Jul 2021; Accepted: 18 Jul 2021; Published: 30 Sep 2021; Available online: 19 Jul 2021.
Open Access Copyright (c) 2021 by Authors, Published by BCREC Group
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

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Abstract

Optimisation of biodiesel production from non-edible Reutealis Trisperma oil (RTO) was investigated using Taguchi method. Biodiesel was produced via consecutive esterification and transesterification reactions. Esterification of RTO was carried out using acid catalyst to decrease the amount of free fatty acid from 2.24% to 0.09%. Subsequent transesterification of the treated oil with methanol over a series of CaO-ZnO catalysts was optimized based on the L9 Taguchi orthogonal approach. The optimization parameters are Ca/Zn ratio (0.25, 0.5, and 1), methanol/oil ratio (10, 20, and 30) and reaction time (0.5, 1, and 2 h). CaO-ZnO catalysts at variation of Ca/Zn ratios were prepared using co-precipitation method and characterized using XRD, SEM, TEM, and FTIR analysis. The amount of methyl ester yield was used as the response parameter in the S/N ratio analysis and Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). The optimum parameter for RTO transesterification to biodiesel was determined at Ca/Zn ratio of 1, methanol oil ratio of 30 and reaction time for 2 h. Transesterification under these optimized parameter generated 98% of biodiesel yield, inferring the validity of the statistical approach. Furthermore, ANOVA analysis also confirmed that all the parameters were significantly contributed at approximately equal percentage towards the amount of biodiesel. Copyright © 2021 by Authors, Published by BCREC Group. This is an open access article under the CC BY-SA License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0).

 

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Keywords: Biodiesel; Reutealis trisperma oil; Taguchi; optimization; Transesterification
Funding: Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember

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