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Investigating Photochromic Behavior of Organic Dyes in Solution Form using Multilevel Factorial Design

1Department of Mechatronics Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, International Islamic University Malaysia, P. O. Box 10, 50728 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

2Department of Science in Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, International Islamic University Malaysia, P. O. Box 10, 50728 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

3Department of Biotechnology Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, International Islamic University Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

4 Industrial Centre of Innovation (ICI) Biomedical, SIRIM Industrial Research (SIR), SIRIM Berhad, Lot 34, Jalan Hi-Tech 2/3, Kulim Hi-Tech Park, 09000 Kulim, Kedah, Malaysia

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Received: 2 Mar 2021; Revised: 2 Apr 2021; Accepted: 5 Apr 2021; Available online: 8 Apr 2021; Published: 30 Jun 2021.
Editor(s): Istadi Istadi, Mohd Asmadi Mohammed Yussuf, Salman Raza Naqvi, Nor Saidina-Amin
Open Access Copyright (c) 2021 by Authors, Published by BCREC Group
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

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Photochromic compounds, namely spiropyran, spirooxazine, and naphthopyran, have received much attention, because of their high potential applications in various industrial fields. The aim of this study is to understand the behavior of three photochromic dyes in solution form via statistical approach. The types of dyes and solvents were screened using multilevel factorial design. From the analysis of variance results, it was found that the types of dyes and solvents used as well as their interaction have significant effects on the absorbance and photostability. The naphthopyran compound displayed highest change in absorbance intensity, followed by spiropyran and spirooxazine, when dissolved in isopropanol separately. However, the spirooxazine is the most photostable dye compared to naphthopyran and spiropyran, with ethanol as the solvent. Copyright © 2021 by Authors, Published by BCREC Group. This is an open access article under the CC BY-SA License (


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Keywords: Photochromism; spiropyran; spirooxazine; naphthopyran; factorial design; photostability
Funding: Ministry of Higher Education Malaysia under contract FRGS Grant No. 11-029-0177

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