Effects of Bentonite Activation Methods on Chitosan Loading Capacity

DOI: https://doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.13.1.1040.14-23
Copyright (c) 2018 Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis
Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
Cover Image

Article Metrics: (Click on the Metric tab below to see the detail)

Article Info
Submitted: 24-03-2017
Published: 02-04-2018
Section: Original Research Articles
Fulltext PDF Tell your colleagues Email the author

The adsorption capacity of bentonite clay for heavy metal removal from wastewater can be significantly enhanced by a high loading of chitosan on the surface. In order to enhance the chitosan loading, we tested activating bentonite clay by three methods prior to chitosan loading: sulfuric acid, calcination, and microwave treatments. Meanwhile, several parameters during chitosan loading, namely the initial chitosan concentration, stirring speed, reaction time, temperature, and pH value were investigated. Our results indicate that chitosan is attached to bentonite clay through intercalation and surface adsorption according to X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Scanning Eelectron Microscopy (SEM), and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) analyses. The maximum chitosan loading on 200-mesh raw bentonite clay (126.30 mg/L) was achieved under the following conditions: the initial chitosan concentration of 1000 mg/L, the stirring speed of 200 rpm, pH of 4.9, 60 min of reaction time, and temperature of 30 °C. The chitosan loading was further increased to 256.30, 233.70, and 208.83 mg/g, when using bentonite clay activated through 6 min of microwave irradiation (800 W), 10 % sulfuric acid treatment, and calcinations at 600 °C, respectively. When the chitosan loading was increased from 34.76 to 233.7 mg/g, the removal percentages of Cu(II), Cr(VI), and Pb(II) were improved, respectively from 78.90 to 95.5 %, from 82.22 to 98.74 %, from 60.09 to 86.18 %. Copyright © 2018 BCREC Group. All rights reserved

Received: 14th March 2017; Revised: 17th July 2017; Accepted: 18th July 2017; Available online: 22nd January 2018; Published regularly: 2 April 2018

How to Cite: Yu, T., Qu, C., Fan, D., Xu, R. (2018). Effects of Bentonite Activation Methods on Chitosan Loading Capacity. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 13 (1): 14-23 (doi:10.9767/bcrec.13.1.1040.14-23)



Chitosan; chitosan-loaded bentonite; bentonite activation; loading properties

  1. Tao Yu 
    School of Chemical Engineering, Northwest University, China
  2. Chengtun Qu 
    College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Xi’an Shiyou University, China
  3. Daidi Fan 
    School of Chemical Engineering, Northwest University, China
  4. Renjun Xu 
    Department of Chemical Engineering, Xi’an Light Industry Research Institute, China
  1. Lim, A.P., Aris, A.Z. (2014). A Review on Economically Adsorbents on Heavy Metals Removal in Water and Wastewater. Reviews in Environmental Science and Bio/Technology, 13(2): 163-181.
  2. Zhao, M., Xu, Y., Zhang, C., Rong, H., Zeng, G. (2016). New Trends in Removing Heavy Metals from Wastewater. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, 100(15): 6509-6518.
  3. Liu, B., Wang, D., Yu, G., Xianghong, M. (2013). Adsorption of Heavy Metal Ions, Dyes and Proteins by Chitosan Composites and Derivatives - A Review. Journal of Ocean University of China, 12(3): 500-508.
  4. Sharma, P., Kaur, H., Sharma, M., Sahore, V. (2011). A Review on Applicability of Naturally Available Adsorbents for the Removal of Hazardous Dyes from Aqueous Waste. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 183(1): 151-195.
  5. Liu, Q., Yang, B., Zhang, L., Huang, R. (2015). Adsorptive Removal of Cr(VI) from Aqueous Solutions by Cross-Linked Chitosan/Bentonite Composite. Korean Journal of Chemical Engineering, 32(7): 1314-1322.
  6. Mohamed, R.R., Rizk, N.A., Abd El Hady, B.M., Abdallah, H.M., Sabaa, M.W. (2016). Synthesis, Characterization and Application of Biodegradable Crosslinked Carboxymethyl Chitosan/Poly(ethylene glycol) Clay Nanocomposites. Journal of Polymers and the Environment, doi:10.1007/s10924-016-0849-5.
  7. Olu-Owolabi, B.I., Popoola, D.B., Unuabonah, E.I. (2010). Removal of Cu2+ and Cd2+ from Aqueous Solution by Bentonite Clay Modified with Binary Mixture of Goethite and Humic Acid. Water, Air, & Soil Pollution, 211(1): 459-474.
  8. Keng, P.S., Lee, S.L., Ha, S.T., Hung, Y.T., Ong, S.T. (2014). Removal of Hazardous Heavy Metals from Aqueous Environment by Low-Cost Adsorption Materials. Environmental Chemistry Letters, 12(1): 15-25
  9. Khalfa, L., Cervera, M.L., Bagane, M., Souissi-Najar, S. (2016). Modeling of Equilibrium Isotherms and Kinetic Studies of Cr (VI) Adsorption into Natural and Acid-Activated Clays. Arabian Journal of Geosciences, 9, 75.
  10. Falayi, T., Ntuli, F. (2015). Effect of Attapulgite Calcination on Heavy Metal Adsorption from Acid Mine Drainage. Korean Journal of Chemical Engineering, 32(4): 707-716.
  11. Riaz, U., Ashraf, S.M., Khan, N., (2011). Effects of Surfactants on Microwave-Assisted Solid-State Intercalation of Poly(carbazole) in Bentonite. Journal of Nanoparticle Research, 13(12): 6321-6331.
  12. El-Sherif, H., El-Masry, M. (2011). Superabsorbent Nanocomposite Hydrogels Based on Intercalation of Chitosan into Activated Bentonite. Polymer Bulletin, 66(6): 721-734.
  13. Ngah, W.S.W., Ariff, N.F.M., Hanafiah, M.A.K.M. (2010). Preparation, Characterization, and Environmental Application of Crosslinked Chitosan-Coated Bentonite for Tartrazine Adsorption from Aqueous Solutions. Water, Air, and Soil Pollution, 206(1): 225-236.
  14. Chen, Y., Zhu, C., Sun, Y., Duan, H., Ye, W., Wu, D. (2012). Adsorption of La(III) onto GMZ Bentonite: Effect of Contact Time, Bentonite Content, pH Value and Ionic Strength. Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry, 292(3): 1339-1347.
  15. Selvin, R., Hsu, H.L., Aneesh, P., Sha-Hua, C., Hung, L.L. (2010). Preparation of Acid-Modified Bentonite for Selective Decomposition of Cumene Hydroperoxide into Phenol and Acetone. Reaction Kinetics, Mechanisms and Catalysis, 100(1): 197-204.
  16. Raval, N.P., Shah, P.U., Shah, N.K. (2016). Adsorptive Amputation of Hazardous Azo Dye Congo Red from Wastewater: A Critical Review. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 23(15): 14810-14853.
  17. Shahmirzadi, M.A.A., Hosseini, S.S., Tan, N.R. (2016). Enhancing Removal and Recovery of Magnesium from Aqueous Solutions by Using Modified Zeolite and Bentonite and Process Optimization. Korean Journal of Chemical Engineering, 33(12): 3529-3540.
  18. Chiu, F.C., Lai, S.M., Hsieh, I.C., Don, T.M., Huang, C.Y. (2012). Preparation and Properties of Chitosan/Clay (Nano) Composites: A Silanol Quaternary Ammonium Intercalated Clay. Journal of Polymer Research, 19(2): 9781. doi:10.1007/s10965-011-9781-5
  19. Kaya, E.M.Ö., Özcan, A.S., Gök, Ö., Özcan, A. (2013). Adsorption Kinetics and Isotherm Parameters of Naphthalene onto Natural- and Chemically Modified Bentonite from Aqueous Solutions. Adsorption, 19(2): 879-888.
  20. Tonelli, D., Scavetta, E., Giorgetti, M. (2013). Layered-double-hydroxide-modified Electrodes: Electroanalytical Applications. Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, 405(2): 603-614.
  21. Seyedmohammadi, J., Motavassel, M., Maddahi, M.H., Nikmanesh, S. (2016). Application of Nanochitosan and Chitosan Particles for Adsorption of Zn(II) Ions Pollutant from Aqueous Solution to Protect Environment. Modeling Earth Systems and Environment, 2(3):165. doi:10.1007/s40808-016-0219-2
  22. Hu, C., Hu, H., Zhu, J., Deng, Y., Li, C. (2016). Adsorption of Cu2+ on Montmorillonite and Chitosan-Montmorillonite Composite toward Acetate Ligand and the pH Dependence. Water, Air, & Soil Pollution, 227: 362. doi: 10.1007/s11270-016-3067-9
  23. Chen, C.Y., Chung, Y.C. (2011). Comparison of Acid-soluble and Water-soluble Chitosan as Coagulants in Removing Bentonite Suspensions. Water, Air, & Soil Pollution, 217(1): 603-610.
  24. Dong, Y., Lin, H.J. (2016). Ammonia Nitrogen Removal from Aqueous Solution Using Zeolite Modified by Microwave-Sodium Acetate. Journal of Central South University, 23(6): 1345-1352.
  25. Lin, H., Jin, X., Dong, Y., Huo, H., Liu, Q. (2014). Influence of Calcination on the Physical Characteristics and Nitrogen Removal Performance of Clinoptilolites. Journal of Wuhan University of Technology-Mater. Sci. Ed., 29(6): 1099-1103.
  26. Sdiri, A.T., Higashi, T., Jamoussi, F. (2014). Adsorption of Copper and Zinc onto Natural Clay in Single and Binary Systems. International Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, 11(4): 1081-1092.
  27. Liu, J., Wang, H.L., Lü, C.X., Liu H.F., Guo, Z.X., Kang, C.L. (2013). Remove of Heavy Metals (Cu2+, Pb2+, Zn2+ and Cd2+) in Water through Modified Diatomite. Chemical Research in Chinese Universities, 29(3): 445-448.
  28. Roque-Ruiz, J.H., Cabrera-Ontiveros, E.A., Torres-Pérez, J., Reyes-López, S.Y. (2016). Preparation of PCL/clay and PVA/clay Electrospun Fibers for Cadmium (Cd2+), Chromium (Cr3+), Copper (Cu2+) and Lead (Pb2+) Removal from Water. Water, Air, & Soil Pollution, 227: 286. doi:10.1007/s11270-016-2990-0